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Knowledge, Awareness, and Practice on Natural Disasters among Residents of  San Juan Baño Arayat, Pampanga 

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*Corresponding author:  
Allain James T. Aquino  
Greenhouse Gases 
Natural Disasters
The study aimed to find out the knowledge, awareness, and practice of natural disasters among the selected residents of Barangay San Juan Baño, Arayat,  Pampanga. National Integrated Climate Change Database Information and  Exchange System, Climate change is the long-term change in climate (i.e.,  temperature, rainfall, extreme weather, etc.). Scientific studies indicate that most global warming in recent decades is due to the great concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere, which is released mainly as a  result of human activities. Causing numerous natural disasters affecting many communities. This study was conducted to determine the awareness of San  Juan Baño, Arayat, and Pampanga to natural disasters, specifically typhoons and landslides. The study was conducted on randomly selected residents of San  Juan Baño, Arayat, Pampanga. A questionnaire survey was prepared to determine residents’ awareness of natural disasters. A descriptive analysis of residents’ responses was used to analyze the data. Based on the analyzed data, it can be mentioned that the majority of the respondents were aware of the following natural disasters as drought, earthquakes, landslides,  floods, extreme heat, wildfires, typhoons, hurricanes, viral epidemics, pest attacks and volcanic eruptions. In terms of respondents’ awareness of typhoons, the majority believe that San Juan Baño, Arayat, Pampanga are prone to typhoons. In terms of Landslides, most of the responses fall under the “Agree” section that San Juan Baño, Arayat, Pampanga is prone to landslides causing road destruction, crop damages, destroying houses, power interruption, and death of family members. 


Climate change, which is a long-term change in temperature and typical weather patterns in an area, may make weather patterns less predictable. The entire world or a single area may be impacted by climate change.  Fossil fuel consumption, including the use of coal, natural gas, and oil, is a significant factor in the current climate change.

Burning these substances releases greenhouse It is generally known that the Philippines, which ranks third out of 173 countries in terms of disaster risk, is incredibly susceptible to natural disasters (United  Nations University- Institute for Environment and Human  Security, 2011). The potential for loss of life, a reduction in health and standard of living, and potential harm to resources and services as a result of an already existing natural hazard are all factors that are taken into account when calculating disaster risk (Tyson Brown, National  Geographic Society) 2019). 

Among the most commonly observed media headlines globally are tragic accounts of natural calamities like drought, heat waves, storms/cyclones, floods, and landslides. Since the 1970s, the Emergency Occurrences  Database (EM-DAT) of the Center for Research on the  Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) has been keeping tabs on the losses and damages caused by disaster occurrences in various nations, as well as the expenses of economic harm. According to EM-DAT data (Warner and van der Geest, 2013) severe drought and storm disasters occurred between 1900 and 2014 in the least developed and less developing countries, where the population is less equipped to cope.  

Within San Juan Baño Arayat Pampanga, there are various eco-tourism spots such as Tree House, Mt. Arayat National Park, 100 steps, and the famous view of Mt.  Arayat. Therefore; this study aimed to assess the knowledge, awareness, and practice of the selected residents of San Juan Baño, Arayat, Pampanga specifically on typhoons and landslides which are prone and dramatically visible within the said Barangay. 


The locale of the study was conducted in Barangay San  Juan Baño, Arayat Pampanga San Juan Baño.  The research was conducted using a quota random  sample method of every household in San Juan Baño,  Arayat Pampanga. Quota random selection will be  conducted among all households in the Barangay who are  18 years old or older. The said Barangay will be presented  with a list of the households’ respondents. 

There are 7 purok and 1,839 total households in the  Barangay, the respondents of this study are thirty percent  (%) of the 553 household heads in barangay San Juan  Baño, Arayat Pampanga and the barangay officials. This  study used the Quota Random Sampling Method in  determining the sample. 

The primary data will be obtained from 553 households  of Barangay San Juan Baño Arayat, Pampanga, while the  secondary data will come from barangay officials.  Interview questions and face-to-face surveys will be used  to gather data. Every question in the survey will be analyzed and interpreted. Each response on the  questionnaire will be assigned a numerical value, and the computed mean will reveal the respondents’ level of  knowledge, awareness, and practice. 


General Knowledge and Awareness of Natural Disasters

In average (Table 1), the results of the study showed that  66.23 % of the total respondents are aware and  knowledgeable on different disasters such as: Drought;  earthquakes, landslides, floods, typhoons, pest attacks  and etc. This means that the majority of respondents are  knowledgeable of the above-mentioned natural disasters  within the environment. The majority of people relate to  disasters through personal experience, knowledge, the  balance of benefits and costs, and trust in other societal  elements, according to Aekerlof et al. (2006). 

This holds true for Ahmad et al. (2017) study, which  demonstrates disaster awareness among the pupils in the  Ganderbal region based on an analysis of the data  gathered, and shows that every student included in the  sample has some understanding of catastrophes. 

People are seriously at risk from disasters like floods,  earthquakes, and fires, among others. One strategy for  minimizing the effects of disasters is disaster education,  which includes instruction on preparedness, mitigation,  and risk management measures (Smith, 1993); (Mulyasari et al, 2011) a greater comprehension of disaster  knowledge and awareness would promote  advancements in disaster management planning. 

For individuals to be able to handle the negative effects  of natural and man-made disasters, it is essential to raise  their awareness of and attitude toward such events. We  must acquire knowledge, skills, and values at all levels if  we are to be properly informed about disasters and  prepared for them. The goal of disaster education,  according to the 2005-2015 Hyogo Framework for Action  (Basabe, 2013), is “to establish a culture of safety and  resilience at all levels,” in order to lessen the negative  social and economic effects of hazards. 

Table 1: General Knowledge and Awareness of Natural  Disasters 

Awareness Yes (%) No (%) I Don’t  Know (%)
Drought 85.53 9.04 5.42
Earthquake 78.3 13.92 7.78
Landslide 70.52 20.07 9.4
Flood 75.95 15.01 9.04
Extreme Heat 65.1 24.41 10.49
Wildfire 50.27 22.42 27.31
Typhoon 75.59 16.46 7.96
Hurricane 53.16 20.43 26.4
Viral epidemic 50.81 27.31 21.88
Pest attacks 53.89 28.21 17.9
Volcanic eruption 69.44 19.17 11.39
Average 66.23% 19.68% 14.09%

Knowledge and Awareness of Typhoon 

Respondents from Brgy. San Juan. Bano Arayat agrees  that their Barangay, the Pampanga, and the Philippines  are prone to Typhoon (Table 2). They are also aware that  typhoons can cause landslides, damage crops, destroy  houses, spread illness, diseases, power interruption, and  possibly death. With an average of 95.49% awareness of  typhoon causes.  

Effective risk communication methods must take into  account the public’s awareness of dangers from natural  disasters like typhoons. Recent studies have emphasized  more and more how important it is for people to  understand natural disasters and how risky they are.  According to Chinese studies, people who live in typhoon prone areas are more conscious of the risk of a disaster  than the general population.

Residents’ risk awareness  and preparedness knowledge were also favorably  correlated with their coping strategies. People with prior  experience in southern Thailand have high risk  perceptions, which are manifested as a heightened fear  of typhoons and a propensity to take impending disasters  seriously, according to a study. 

Typhoons are considered to be extremely devastating  natural hazards worldwide. There are seven to eight  typhoons on average landing in the Philippines each year,  which makes the Philippines one of the countries that  were hit most frequently by typhoons.  

Studies have reported that the impact of a typhoon  disaster depends on the intensity and strength of the  typhoon, which is also linked with the precautionary  concerns and knowledge of local residents. Lack of  attention to disaster warnings might lead to significant  damage and bring risks of typhoon-related injuries even  facing a low-risk typhoon, which suggests a need to pay  attention to typhoon disaster prevention, regardless of  the intensity of storms. 

Additionally, data on disaster awareness reveals that  93.3% of respondents give typhoon disaster avoidance a  lot of thought. And among the respondents, 89.7%  believed that training on preventing typhoon disasters  was important, with 18.1% indicating a considerable need  for it; 83.2% said they would participate in a formal  program (Torani et al. 2019). 

Knowledge and Awareness of Landslides 

The Philippines, Pampanga, and Brgy San Juan Bano were also prone to Landslides as evidenced by the respondent’s awareness of Landslides garnering 90.47%.  It was also shown in Table 3 that landslides can cause road destruction, and community and house damage,  which may also cause the death of a family member. 

Table 2: Knowledge and Awareness of Typhoon 

Typhoon knowledge  and awarenessAGREE (%) DISAGREE (%)
Philippines is prone to  typhoons.96.75 3.25
Pampanga is prone to  typhoons.94.39 5.61
Our Barangay is prone  to typhoons94.75 5.25
I am aware of the  weather forecast  symbols/terms used by  PAGASA for  appropriate response.95.11 4.89
Typhoons can cause  landslides. 96.38 3.62
Typhoons can damage  crops.95.3 4.7
A typhoon can destroy  houses and buildings.96.02 3.98
A typhoon can spread  disease and illness.95.12 4.88
A typhoon can result in  the death of a family  member.94.04 5.96
Typhoons can cause  power interruption/  outrages.95.47 4.52
Climate change causes  an increasing number  of typhoons.96.39 3.61
PAGASA and NDRRMC  disseminate Typhoon  Public Information via  radio, social media,  television and SMS  blasts96.2 3.8
Average 95.49% 4.51%

Source of Information on Natural Disasters 

Shown in Table 4 is how respondents get information  about an approaching typhoon and the danger of a  landslide in their barangay. Out of the five hundred fifty three (553) respondents, 5% answered Newspaper,  37.97% answered Television, 15.55% answered Barangay  announcements, 7.05% answered Radio, 5.42%  answered Cellphone, 17.54% answered social media,  7.05% answered Friends and 4.52% answered others. The  majority of the respondents were under Television with a  total of 210 counts. Based on Leelawat et al., 2013, study  found that the most preferred method for officials to  announce disaster warnings was TV for any period of  time. 

Table 3: Knowledge and Awareness of Landslides 

Landslides knowledge  and awarenessAGREE (%) DISAGREE  (%)
The Philippines is prone  to landslides.95.66 4.34
Pampanga is prone to  landslides.87.53 12.47
Our Barangay is prone to  landslides.86.26 13.74
Landslides are one of the  causes of Typhoons.91.14 8.86
Landslides are caused by  earthquakes.88.24 11.76
Landslides can cause  damage to communities.91.32 8.68
Landslides can cause  damage to roads.91.32 8.68
Landslides can destroy  houses and buildings.92.05 7.95
A landslide can result in  the death of a family  member.88.42 11.57
Landslide can cause  power interruption/  outrages.89.69 10.31
PAGASA, PHIVOLCS and  NDRRMC disseminate  Landslide Public  Information via radio,  social media, television  and SMS blasts.93.49 6.51
Average 90.47% 9.53%

Preparedness in Case of an Emergency 

A total of 45.99% of the respondent only prepared  emergency activities such as Disaster supply kits, stored  food and water, flashlights and batteries, medical  supplies, and other essential emergency kits. And about  29.73% are planning to and are in the process of  preparing these materials as shown in Table 5. 

Preparedness of a Barangay in the event of a disaster

A total of 90.47% believed that the barangay should have evacuation centers, Health centers, trained personnel on first aid, Disaster plans, and licensed medical professionals. 

Table 4: Source of Information on Natural Disasters 

Source of information Percentage (%)
Newspaper 5.00
Television 37.97
Barangay  Announcements/Seminar 15.55
Radio 7.05
Telephone 5.42
Social media 17.54
Friends 7.05
Others 4.52

Table 5: Preparedness in case of an Emergency 

Have you prepared  the following in  case of an  emergency or  disaster?YES  (%)NO  (%)ON PROCESS  (%)
Safe escape plan 49.73 13.38 36.89
Designated meeting  place after Disaster  occurrences48.46 26.94 24.59
Disaster supply kit 47.2 21.7 31.1
Stored food and  water45.75 24.77 29.48
Stored batteries and  flashlights39.78 28.03 32.19
Stored medical  supplies43.94 27.12 28.93
Stocked up on  essential hygiene  and sanitation  supplies44.67 29.48 25.86
Money 55.33 19.35 25.32
Emergency Hotlines 46.65 27.31 26.04
Plan for Evacuation 38.34 24.77 36.89
Average 45.99 24.29 29.73

Preparedness of a Barangay in an event of a disaster

In terms of willingness, a total of 42.72% of the  respondents are willing to participate as volunteers with  the LGU, Red Cross, and Neighboring groups in case of  emergencies. 35.17% are partially and are in the process  of volunteering. 


The knowledge, awareness, and practice of natural disasters among the selected residents of barangay San  Juan Baño Arayat Pampanga about typhoons and landslides. In conclusion, the respondents were knowledgeable and aware of natural disasters.

show that Barangay San Juan Baño is involved in actions that specifically contribute to practices and preparedness for natural disasters. Therefore, strict implementation of rules and regulations is highly required, and cooperation and participation in every seminar conducted in the barangay about natural disaster preparedness programs with the collaboration of the LGU.

It also shows the value of researching local knowledge, practices, and understanding of natural disasters. Similar findings were also found in Govindasamy’s study on residents’  knowledge of landslides Habibah and Vijaya, 2012. An investigation of residents’ knowledge of landslide disaster issues revealed that they gave their knowledge an average score of 63% out of 100%, which is a  reasonable result for locals. 

Table 6: Preparedness of a Barangay in the event of a  disaster 

Barangay Preparedness  in the Event of a  DisasterAGREE (%) DISAGREE (%)
There is a designated  Evacuation center for  public safety in the  barangay99.10 0.9
The health center is available for medical purposes.99.46 0.54
Barangay Hall and  covered courts are  available as an96.39 3.61
There are trained personnel about the basics of first aid. 94.03 5.97
There are trained and licensed medical personnel to treat illness/injuries.94.21 5.79
There are trained and  licensed medical personnel to treat illness/injuries.95.3 4.7
Average 90.47 9.53

It matters a lot how households react to natural calamities. According to Kapucu (2008), if people aren’t ready, then no one is. Sutton and Tierney (2016),  provided an overview of the critical level of preparation in a home. These metrics include risk awareness, written and informal agreements, and reaction plans. They also include medical resources, life safety and property protection, and the start of the healing process. In addition, Levac et al. (2012) evaluated the literature on disaster preparedness and found that people and families are motivated to make emergency plans based on their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. 

Table 7: Willingness of the Household in case of an  Emergencies 

Our household would  be willing to:YES  (%)NO (%) ON PROCESS  (%)
Volunteer during a  disaster event57.69 20.43 21.88
Volunteer with the  LGU30.02 22.78 47.2
Volunteer with Red  Cross26.4 22.06 51.54
Volunteer with a  neighborhood group56.78 23.15 20.07
Average 42.72 22.11 35.17

Furthermore, it can be concluded that the residents in  Barangay San Juan Baño, Arayat, Pampanga are highly prepared in case a disaster occurs particularly a typhoon  & landslide. Preparedness is the level of readiness based on undergone planning, training, and exercises to respond to an emergency (Col, 2007). A well-prepared home may significantly lessen the effects of disasters  (Leelawat, et al, 2013).

It is believed that strengthening local preparation is an essential part of an effective reaction and recovery (Levac J, et al., 2012). Investigating a household’s preparedness for dealing with natural disasters is vital. When a crisis happens, families must be accountable for own needs as well as those of their neighbors (Basabe, 2013). 

It can be inferred that the respondents are ready to help in the event of a crisis, particularly in the LGU. The government is crucial in aiding the community’s preparedness for some calamities. The fundamental duties of the local government in assisting the community during a disaster were articulated by Kusumasari, et al.  (2010). On the other hand, people desire to assist government agencies with disaster prevention, self-rescue, and mutual rescue activities, and involvement in neighborhood catastrophe reduction efforts. The public’s willingness to help the government after a disaster is generally positive, and participants are generally willing to provide disaster aid. 


The study recommends providing seminars and alert  systems especially on natural disasters for the entirety of  the residents of barangay San Juan Baño Arayat  Pampanga as their target audience for the community to  gain more knowledge about natural disasters. 

Due to the results obtained from the study, the researcher recommends to do the following suggestion: ● Conducting and providing seminars on alert systems checking and monitoring of Mount Arayat through the collaboration of the MDRRMO and PENRO.  ● Preparedness to establish safe areas in barangay for different types of emergencies. 

● Show each family member how and where to shut off utilities (water, gas, electricity). 

● Learn about the signs and warning systems in the community (sirens, text messages, symbols/terms used in weather forecasts). 


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