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Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan 

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Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal
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Shakir Ullah1, Said Majid Ahmad2, Ihtisham Ul Haq2, Ikram Ullah2, Rizwana Bilqees3, Asghar Ali3,  Yaseen Khan4and Muhammad Sajid5 

1State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany (LSEB) Institute of Botany Chines  Academy of Science China  

2Department of Botany, Govt Degree College Samarbagh Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  3Department of Botany, University of Chitral – Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan 

4Department of Botany, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan 5Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan University Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,  Pakistan 6Department of Botany, Bacha Khan University situated in Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Corresponding author:  Shakir Ullah 

Medicinal plants list 
Local uses of plants 
Village Darangal  
Tehsil Samarbagh 
District Dir Lower 

Received: 30.07.2023 
Received in revised form: 16.11.2023 
Accepted: 18.11.2023
A total of 50 species of plants belonging to 35 families were collected from the research area Darangal Dir Lower. Details about their local names,  descriptions of plants, and ethno-medicinal uses were also recorded.  These medicinal plants are used for different types of diseases such as respiratory disease, colds, diabetes, kidney disease, fever, pain, hair problems, anti-bacterial, anti-ulcer, cough, and skin disease. The results indicated that the medicinal plants in the study area a wide medicinal uses and important value as recorded by the local community. These plants have much importance and medicinal uses for local people and are a  cheap source of cures because these are mostly used by the poor mass of the community. The composed plant’s species were utilized as remedial plants pursued via vegetables along with food, 12 species were used for fuel and wood, 10 species were used for furniture, 4 species were used as thatching, 2 species were used as a hedge, 2 species were used for fruits and 6 species were used for ornamental purposes. The dominant families of the research area were Rosaceae have 10 species, Fabaceae and  Poaceae each have 9 species. Lamiaceae and Solanaceae each have 8  species. Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, Papilonaceae,  Ranunculaceae, and Rotaceae each have 5 species. Euphorbiaceae,  Labiatae, Malvaceae, and Rhamaceae each have 4 species. Leaves of the plant were mostly utilized in the preparation of therapeutic recipes. These medicinal recipes were used mostly orally in the form of decoction.  Traditional methods of collection and poor post-harvest also decreased the quality of these medicinal plants. Deforestation, soil erosion as well as increase in inhabitants were also solemn intimidation to the valuable plants of the region. The current work is an initiation step toward the documentation of these valuable plants. The flora of the area requires proper conservation for the better future of Darangal. 


1.1 Introduction to study area: 

District Dir Lower is located between 340-370 to 350- 07 North Latitudes and 710-310 to 720-14 East longitudes, (Ullah et al., 2022). District Lower Dir is located in the north-western part of Khyber  Pakhtunkhwa province and is spread over an area of  1583 square kilometers. This area is superficially hilly.  This region is connected on the north with Upper Dir,  and Swat on the east, in the South borders with  Malakand District, while Afghanistan and Bajaur districts lie on the west side (Ullah et al., 2021). At the time of independence, Dir was a princely state ruled by Nawab Shah Jehan Khan. It was merged with Pakistan in 1969 and later declared a district in 1970.  On 13 August 1996, Districts Dir was bifurcated into  two separate states, i.e., District Upper Dir and  District Lower Dir (Ullah et al., 2017).

The district is divided into two main Subdivisions; Samar Bagh and  Timergara. The district has seven Tehsils I.e.,  Balambat, Adenzai, Lal Qilla, Munda, Khall, Samar  Bagh, and Timergara (Ullah et al., 2023.). District Dir  Lower is further divided into 37 UCs and 1,023 villages  (census report of District in, 1998). Peshawar is connected to Dir via Charsadda and Malakand.  (Ahmad et al., 2023). Kambat is a union council of the  Lower Dir District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Lower Dir District has 37 union councils with a population of 797,852, according to the 1998 census report.

The population growth rate of the Lower Dir District was 3.42% per annum between the 1981 and 1998 censuses (Ajaib et al., 2010). The major tribes are Yousafzai, Mashwani, Saddat, Tarran,  Tajak, Atrafi, Khilji, Sahibzadgan, Mast Khel, Shinwari,  Umer Khel, Swati, Mayar, Gujar, Sadat, Mashwani,  Tajak, Wardag and Sultan Kheel etc (zaman et al., 2022).

Ethnobotany is the study of the interaction between plants and people, with a particular emphasis on traditional tribal cultures. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 65-80%  of the world’s population in developing countries depends essentially on plants for their primary healthcare due to poverty and lack of access to modern medicine (Usma et al., 2022). Plants are significant sources of medicines that are used in the treatment of various categories of human diseases (Ahmad et al., 2023).

Historically all medicinal preparations were derived from plants, whether in the simple form of plant parts or in the more complex form of crude extracts, mixtures, etc. Today a substantial number of drugs are developed from plants that are active against a number of diseases  (Principe, et al, 2005) and the use of medicinal plants is well known among the indigenous people in rural areas of many developing countries.

Plants, especially the higher ones have been described as the sleeping giants of drugs and these medicinal plants have been screened for their chemicals that are potentially  potent (Bahadur et al. 2023). In 2002, herbal therapy was the leading CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) modality, consumed by 38 million U.S.  adults. In 1997, 12.1% of the U.S. population used herbal medicine, whereas, by 2002, this figure increased to 18.6 % (Zaman et al., 2022). Moreover,  sales of herbal medicines skyrocketed from $200  million in 1988 to $3.5 billion in 1997 and $4.4 billion in 2005.

The naturopathic doctor Michael Murray has fittingly pointed to a “herbal renaissance” resulting from advances in pharmacological techniques,  increased scientific knowledge of medicinal compounds, and enhanced public acceptance of natural, or complementary, therapies (Hameed et al.,  2022). Using ethnobotanical medicines from various global traditions for the treatment of cancer as examples, this article examines the utilitarian and anthropocentric ethics surrounding therapeutic flora.  While several key ethnobotanical species for cancer treatment will be foregrounded in this article, I  recognize that the ethics of reciprocity relate to all therapeutic uses of medicinal plants (Ajayi and  Moody, 2015).

However, ethnobotanical species for cancer treatment offer salient examples of the need for reciprocity ethics; conventional medical practices prioritize the alleviation of human suffering, but marginalize the importance of giving back to plants, of returning the favor, in the spirit of reciprocity.

The conservation of medicinal plants in the wild ensures an ongoing reservoir of therapeutic plant compounds in the future (Arshad, 2021). However, while we consume ethnobotanical plants and contribute to (or subtract from) the viability of their habitats, what do we return to the plants from which the medicines have been derived? In contrast to the utilitarian ethics of medicinal plants, the value of reciprocity foregrounds appropriate and sustained exchanges between people and flora that are not based on use value or virtue theory alone.

Leslie Francis defines reciprocity as “the idea of actions-in-return that are not founded in voluntary agreements or contracts”  and “doing one’s part to produce a common good when especially because others are doing theirs  (Ahmad, 2023).


The present study was carried out from April 2021 to  April 2022. During this time the project area was visited once a month for the collection of data pertinent to the ethnobotany, conservation, and plant diversity of the area. Each study trip was planned and executed effectively.

The research project was completed in three phases. These include literature collection, field trips for data collection, and documentation of the data obtained from Darangal  Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh Dir Lower. 

2.1. Field Work 

Fieldwork was carried out in order to investigate the ethnobotany, plant diversity, and conservation status of the flora of Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh Dir  Lower. The fieldwork included interviews,  observations, and guided field walk/transect walks.  Two methods were frequently used during the fieldwork. 

2.2. Observations 

This method was based on observations in the field conditions. These observations were made while visiting different villages. During this process, local methods of medicinal plant collection, storage, drying,  harvesting time, processing, and utilization were observed and noted. In the meantime, all the plants during the flowering/fruiting stage, were collected,  pressed, and preserved. 

2.3 Botanical Identification 

Plant samples collected throughout the fieldwork were taxonomically identified by using Flora of  Pakistan and placed in the Herbarium of Govt Ghazi  Umara Khan Degree College Samarbagh. The voucher specimens were kept after broad documents for future reference. From Medicinal Plants Names  Services ( the correct name of plants was confirmed. 

2.4. Interviews 

During fieldwork, interviews were conducted with the  local inhabitants, selected informants, the herbalist’s

Plant No: 2 

Habitat: Dry places  

Flowering Season: March-April  

‘hakims’ (local physicians of the eastern system of medicine), pansies (medicinal plants sellers in the local markets). Questionnaires were adopted during the surveys in order to get a qualitative and participatory approach about the plant resources and their utilization by the local people. Questions concerning the utility of different plants, quantity of plants used, rate of consumption, availability,  economics/market value, and fuel wood /fodder head loads were asked. 

2.5. Ethnobotany 

The plants of ethnobotanical importance were collected and classified on the basis of their utility in the area. Local people including plant collectors and others on the basis of age group were interviewed for ethnobotanical information about the area. The timings for fieldwork were selected according to the growth and collection season of the plants. Population size and its distribution, languages, ethnic affiliation,  history of settlement, major social groups or classes,  productive activities, subsistence crops, migration trends, etc. were also explored during the fieldwork. 


A total of 50 species of plants belonging to 35 families were collected from the research area Darangal Dir  Lower. Details about their local names, descriptions of plant, and ethno medicinal uses were also recorded.  The details description is given below. 

Plant No: 1 

Botanical Name: Ajuba bracteosa Wall. Ex Benth English Name: Bugle  

Local Name: Khwaga bootei, Gooti 

Family: Lamiaceae 

Habit: Shade-loving herb growing in crevices Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering Season: February – June 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  The plant is used in internal colic, angina cough, and fever and for the treatment of achnaes. Decoction is useful for curing jaundice, hypertension, refrigerant, and sore throat. 

Parts used: Leaves, shoots, and seeds 

 Local Name: Jaukay

Family: Asteraceae (Compositae) 

 English Name: Viagte wormwood  

Habit: Herb 

Botanical Name: Artemisia scoparia Linn Medicinal uses: Respiratory stimulant, anthelmintic  and purgative. Used as a cure for earache 

Plant No: 3 

Botanical Name: Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Bth.) Codd English Name: Ajwain  

Local Name: Spairkay 

Family: Lamiaceae  

Habit: Herbs  

Habitat: Dry place  

Parts used: Leaves 

Medicinal uses:  

The filtrate is kept for the whole night in the open sky  and is drank early in the morning before breakfast for  sore throat. Some people extract juice from its  leaves, mix it with water, shake it well, and give it to  children for cough. 

Plant No: 4 

Botanical Name: Mentha arvensis L.  

English Name: Corn Mint 

Local Name: Pudina 

Family: Lamiaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Moist places 

Flowering season: July-August 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

The green and dried leaves are used as  antispasmodic, refrigerant, stimulant, diuretic, and  aromatic. The decoction of the leaves and lemon  grass prepared and used as febrifuge in fever. It is a  honey- bee species. 

Plant No: 5 

Botanical Name: Melia azedarach

English Name: Chain berry Tree  

Local Name: Hindustanai Shandai (Toora Shandai) Family: Meliaceae 

Habit: A medium sized tree 

Habitat: Dry soil 

Flowering season: May-July 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

The bark used as cathartic, emetic and vermifuge.  The fruit used as anthelmintic and sexual tonic. The  decoction of leaves employed in hysteria and skin  diseases. The leaves extract and fruit powders used  

for liver complaints, night blindness, vomiting in  fever and worms. 

Plant No: 6 

Botanical Name: Olea ferruginea Royle 

English Name: Indian olive  

Local Name: Khona 

Family: Oleaceae 

Habit: Tall tree 

Habitat: Dry places  

Flowering Season: April – May 

Parts used: Fruits, leaves and trunk 

Medicinal uses:  

The fruit is antidiabetic. The leaves are used for  toothache and throats soar. The leaves and bark are  bitter and used as an astringent, antiseptic,  antiperiodic, diuretic and tonic. 

Plant No: 7 

Botanical Name: Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) A. D  English Name: Sideroxylon  

Local Name: Gorgowara 

Family: Sapotaceae 

Habit: Medium sized tree 

Habitat: Dry, exposed, sunny places 

Flowering season: April-June 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Fruits are edible, used as an astringent, refrigerant  and to improve digestion. The plant grazed by goats,  is used as fuel wood and as a hedge plant. The plant is used as fodder and for fencing. 

Plant No: 8 

Botanical Name: Paeonia emodi Wall. Ex Royle English Name:  

Local Name: Mamaikh 

Family: Paeoniaceae 

Habit: A perennial herb 

Habitat: Dry place  

Flowering Season: April-May 

Parts used: Rhizomes, roots and seeds 

Medicinal uses:  

Roots and rhizomes are used to cure backache,  dropsy and epilepsy. It is also a tonic, emetic,  cathartic, blood purifier and colic. The tubers are  used medicinally in uterine and nervous Diseases.  The seeds are used as purgative and emetic.

Plant No: 9 

J. Agric. For. Res. Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 1-18, Year 2023 Local Name: Palosa 

Botanical Name: Tribulus terrestris L. 

English Name: Land caltrops 

Local Name: Markondai 

Family: Zygophylaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering period: April-August 

Parts used: Fruits, roots 

Medicinal uses:  

The fruits and roots are given for urinary disorders and chronic cystitis. Its general use is as an aphrodisiac.  The fruits and seeds are mixed with honey and used for curing impotence. 

Plant No: 10 

Botanical Name: Verbascum thapsus L. 

English Name: Kashmir Salvia  

Local Name: Kharghwag  

Family: Scrophulariaceae 

Habit: An annual herb 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering Season: May to August 

Parts used: Leaves, flowers, seeds 

Medicinal uses:  

Leaves and flowers are used against cough and pulmonary diseases in the form of a paste. The seeds are narcotic and used as a fish poison. Medicinally the plant is used as a demulcent, emollient, stimulant, and vermifuge. 

Plant No: 11 

Botanical Name: Accacia nilotica (L.) Delile English Name: Gum Arabic  

Local Name: Kikar 

Family: Mimosaceae 

Habit: Tree  

Habitat: Dry places  

Flowering Season: May to August 

Parts used: Flower  

Medicinal uses:  

Flower along with sugar is used for cough. In traditional medicine, Acacia nilotica is widely used.  This plant has anti-microbial, anti-plasmodial and antioxidant activity and used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and cancer. 

Plant No: 12 

Botanical Name: Acacia modesta Wall 

English Name: Senglia Modesta  

Family: Mimosaceae 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Dry Places  

Flowering Season: May to August 

Parts used: Gum and wood 

Medicinal uses:  

Gum is used as a tonic. And used for cough.  Traditionally, Acacia modesta Wall has been used to treat a number of ailments, such as leprosy, wound healing, dysentery, cough, venereal diseases,  bacterial infection, and backache. In the present study, the work has been extended to examine the anti-diabetic, cytotoxic, and proliferative potential of this valuable plant. 

Plant No: 13 

Botanical Name: Chenopodium batrys L.  English Name: Goosefoot  

Local Name: Kharawa Sarmay  

Family: Chenopodiaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Use for washings of utensils, fuel, cooling agents and for infection with water, and used for blood purification. Chenopodium botrys has been used as an antispasmodic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, and spice in traditional medicine. 

Plant No: 14 

Botanical Name: Dodonea viscosa (L.) Jacq  English Name: Hop bush  

Local Name: Ghwarrasky 

Family: Sapindaceae 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Dry place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Ash is used to treat burns and skin infections. Water extracts of leaves is used as antihelmintic. 

Plant No: 15 

Botanical Name: Zanthoxylum armatum DC English Name: Winged prickly ash  

Local Name: Dambara 

Family: Rutaceae

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Dry place  Parts used: Fruit 

Habit: Mushroom 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Flowering Season: April to August 

Medicinal uses:  

Fruit is used for treating stomach disorders.  Zanthoxylum armatum used as a medicine from ancient times for cure of various diseases such as toothache and problems related to tooth, asthma,  used for gum bleeding, fever, dyspepsia, and tonics. 

Plant No: 16 

Botanical Name: Diospyros kaki

English Name: Japanese persimmon  

Local Name: Amlook 

Family: Ebenaceae 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Fruit 

Medicinal uses:  

Fruit is suitable for eating; Leaves are utilized as food and fuel. Leaves, known as Shi Ye (in Chinese), have a  long history as Chinese traditional medicine for the  treatment of ischemia stroke, angina, internal  hemorrhage, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and some  infectious diseases 

Plant No: 17 

Botanical Name: Eucalyptus lanceolatus L.  English Name: Eucalyptus 

Local Name: Laachi 

Family: Myrtaceae 

Habit: Tree 

Habitat: Dry place  

Parts used: Seed and wood 

Flowering Season: April to August 

Medicinal uses:  

The powdered seeds are used to suppress cough.  Herbal remedies recommend using fresh leaves in a  gargle to relieve a sore throat, sinusitis, and bronchitis. Also, eucalyptus oil vapor appears to act as a decongestant when inhaled. It is a popular home remedy for colds and bronchitis. 

Plant No: 18 

Botanical Name: Morchella esculenta L. 

English Name: Morel  

Local Name: Khosay 

Family: Helvelaceae 

Parts used: Whole body 

Medicinal uses:  

Used as body tonic and nutritive food and also edible. It may be used as a purgative, laxative, body tonic, or emollient and also used for stomach problems, healing wound and for general weakness. It can be poisonous if eaten raw and produces so many adverse reactions if not used properly. 

Plant No: 19 

Botanical Name: Ricinus communis L. 

English Name: Castor been  

Local Name: Herhanda 

Family: Euphorbiaceae 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Seed and leaves 

Medicinal uses:  

Seeds are used for stomachache and in bowels problems. Seed oil is specifically used therapeutic for constipation. Leaves are emetic, narcotic. 

Plant No: 20 

Botanical Name: Viola canscens Wall. Ex Roxb  English Name: Himalayan White Violet  

Local Name: Benafsha 

Family: Violaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Plants were used during cold, cough, asthma,  headache and .and leaves are also mix in tea and  used against chest disease. 

Plant No: 21 

Botanical Name: Rose indica L. 

English Name: Rose  

Local Name: Gulab 

Family: Rosaceae 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Found in most part of the country Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Flower, leaf and stems 

Medicinal uses: 

It is useful in heart disease, eye problem and improves high blood pressure. Herbal tea prepared from rose petal is very suitable to control acidity.  Rose petals are used for the formation of perfume. 

Plant No: 22 

Botanical Name: Equisetum arvense L.  

English Name: Field Horsetail  

Local Name: Bandakay 

Family: Equisetaceae 

Habit: Herbs  

Habitat: Dry Place  

Parts used: Shoots 

Sporing Seasons: March to April  

Medicinal uses:  

The extracts of shoots are mixed with mustard oil and used as a hair tonic and against lice. It is used for cleaning and washing utensils. 

Plant No: 23 

Botanical Name: Helianthus annuus L. 

English Name: Sun Flower  

Local Name: Nwar parast 

Family: Asteraceae 

Habit: Shrubs  

Habitat: Agricultural Field  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Oil is used for cooking. The plant is ornamental. use as a  remedy for pulmonary affections, a preparation of  the seeds has been widely used for colds and coughs,  in the Caucasus the seeds have served as a substitute  for quinine in the treatment of malaria 

Plant No: 24 

Botanical Name: Hibiscus esculentus (L.) Moench  English Name: Lady Finger  

Local Name: Bandai 

Family: Malvaceae 

Habit: Herbs  

Habitat: Agricultural Land  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Used for wounds and boils. Leaves are diuretic,  emollient. Fruit is edible. An infusion of the roots is used in the treatment of syphilis. The juice of the roots is used externally in Nepal to treat cuts,  wounds, and boils. The leaves furnish an emollient  

poultice. A decoction of the immature capsules is  demulcent, diuretic and emollient. 

Plant No: 25 

Botanical Name: Plantago lanceolata L. 

English Name: Ribwort plantain  

Local Name: Ghawajabai 

Family: Plantaginaceae 

Habit: Herbs  

Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Leaves, fruits, seeds 

Medicinal uses:  

Extract of leaves is applied to sores, wounds and inflamed surfaces. The seeds are laxative and are used for dysentery and mouth diseases. The leaves are slightly rubbed and used as antifungal in athlete’s foot disease. 

Plant No: 26 

Botanical Name: Zizyphus oxyphylla Edgew English Name: Pointed-Leaf jujube 

Local Name: Elanai 

Family: Rhamnaceae 

Habit: Shrubs 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Roots, fruits  

Medicinal uses:  

The roots are used for curing jaundice. The fruits are edible and used for gas troubles. Also grown as hedge plant. 

Plant No: 27 

Botanical Name: Solanum nigrum L  

English Name: European black nightshade Local Name: Karmacho 

Family: Solanaceae 

Habit: Herbs 

Habitat: Dry place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Vegetative parts 

Medicinal uses:  

Fodder of low quality. Drinking water after eating this  plant may cause flatulence and prove fatal to cattle.  It has been used traditionally for the treatment of  bacterial infections, cough and indigestion. This plant  has also been investigated for ant proliferative.

Plant No: 28 

Local Name: Drab 

Family: Cyperaceae 

Botanical Name: Datura stramonium L. 

English Name: Jimsonweed 

Local Name: Batura 

Family: Solanaceae 

Habit: Herbs 

Habitat: Dry place  

Flowering Season: April to August 

Parts used: Leaves, seeds 

Medicinal uses:  

Green leaves are used for softening the boils. Seeds  are smoked for narcotic action. Seeds and leaves are  used as anodyne. The juices of flowers are useful for earache. 

Plant No: 29 

Botanical Name: Brassica campestris L.  

English Name: Mustard 

Local Name: Sharrsham 

Family: Brassicaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Moist, dry and sandy places 

Flowering Season: March – April 

Parts used: Leaves, seeds and whole plant  Medicinal uses:  

Used for headache, used for hair growth, used for  hair thickness and used for muscular pain of the  body. Oil is obtained from seeds and used for body  massaging and hairs. 

Plant No: 30 

Botanical Name: Solanum virginisnum L. English Name: Thorny Nightshade or Yellow Berried  Nightshade  

Local Name: Maraghony  

Family: Solanaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry place  

Flowering Season: March – April  

Parts used: Fruit extract  

Medicinal uses:  

Used for the treatment of teeth ache. Used for the  opening of sneezing. Fruit is to be chewed and stayed  in mouth. Fruit extract in put into nose for opening  sneezing  

Plant No: 31 

Botanical Name: Cyperus rotundus L. 

English Name: Coco Grass  

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry place  

Flowering Season: May to August 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Use for fodder and fuel. Cyperus rotundus L. is a  medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various  clinical conditions at home such as diarrhea,  diabetes, paresis, and inflammation, malaria, and  stomach and bowel disorders. 

Plant No: 32 

Botanical Name: Vigna unguiculata L. 

English Name: Cowpea  

Local Name: Lobya 

Family: Fabaceae 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Cultivated Fields  

Parts used: Seeds 

Medicinal uses:  

Used as food and for kidney stone. Used to treat  epilepsy, bilharzia, chest pains and constipation. 

Plant No: 33 

Botanical Name: Typha angustata Bory & Chaub.  English Name: Typha Angustifolia  

Local Name: Lokha 

Family: Typhaceae 

Habit: Herb  

Habitat: Moist place 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

It is used as thatching material. Leaves are used as  fodder. is an Ayurvedic herb used to treat bleeding disorders, difficulty to pass urine. It detoxifies breast  milk, semen, ovum, menstrual blood and urine. It  acts as diuretic and hemostatic. 

Plant No: 34 

Botanical Name: Oryza sativa L. 

English Name: Rice  

Local Name: Shoola 

Family: Poaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Moist place 

Flowering Season: May to August 

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

It is used for heart diseases, and diabetes and also used for food and fodder. Sticky rice often is used to treat heartburn, stomach upsets, and indigestion.  Brown rice extracts have been utilized to treat warts,  breast and stomach cancer, and also many parasitic diseases. 

Plant No: 35 

Botanical Name: Vitex negundo L. 

English Name: Chines chaste tree  

Local Name: Marvandai 

Family: Lamiaceae 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Used as digestive problems and fuel. These bioactive compounds exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant,  and antidiabetic, anticancer, antimicrobial. Typically known for its role in the modulation of cellular events like apoptosis, cell cycle, and motility of sperms, polycystic ovary disease, and menstrual cycle. 

Plant No: 36 

Botanical Name: Cestrum nocturnum L.  

English Name: Lady of the Night  

Local Name: Rat ki rani 

Family: Solanaceae 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Used for decorative purposes. It is also used as a  hedge plant and cultivated as a medicinal plant. The medicinal properties of night-blooming jasmine include antioxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia,  hepatoprotective, analgesic, antifungal, anti-convulsant, anti-HIV, and larvicidal activities.

Plant No: 37 

Botanical Name: Tagetes minuta L.  

English Name: Tagetes 

Local Name: Dambar Gully 

Family: Asteraceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Moist Place  

Flowering Seasons: June – July  

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Different plants can be safe from nematodes and use ornamentally. Remedy for colds, respiratory inflammations, stomach problems, anti-spasmodic,  anti-parasitic, anti-septic, insecticide, and sedative. 

Plant No: 38 

Botanical Name: Parthenium hysterophorous L.  English Name: Santa Maria fever few  

Local Name: Zangley Tarkha 

Family: Asteraceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Fodder and fuel. Remedy for skin inflammation,  rheumatic pain, diarrhea, urinary tract infections,  dysentery, malaria, and neuralgia. 

Plant No: 39 

Botanical Name: Ficus carica L. 

English Name: Fig 

Local Name: Inzar 

Family: Moraceae 

Habit: Medium-sized cultivated tree 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Flowering Season: Summer. 

Parts used: Fruits, latex 

Medicinal uses:  

Fruits, both in dry or fresh form, are edible. It is laxative and demulcent, used in constipation, piles and urinary bladder problems. The latex is used against warts and to remove spines and thorns easily. 

Plant No: 40 

Botanical Name: Nasturtium officinale R. Br English Name: watercress 

Local Name: Tarmira 

Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) 

Habit: A perennial herb of moist habitats Habitat: Moist Place  

Flowering Season: March-Aug. 

Parts used: Vegetative portion  

Medicinal uses:  

A vegetable, salad and pot-herb. It is an antiscorbic,  appetizer, and diuretic and used in chest infections and stomachache. Some people also use in heart and kidney troubles.

Plant No: 41 

Local Name: Shahtra  

Family: Fumariaceae 

Botanical Name: Narcissus poeticus

English Name: poet’s daffodil 

Local Name: Goli Nargas 

Family: Amayrlidaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Moist and Dry Place  

Parts used: Flowers 

Medicinal uses:  

It is used for ornamental purposes. Indeed, powerful  anticancer properties of Narcissus poeticus L. were  already known to the Father of Medicine,  Hippokrates, who recommended a pessary prepared  from narcissus oil for the treatment of uterine  tumors. 

Plant No: 42 

Botanical Name: Papaver somniferum L  English Name: bread seed poppy 

Local Name: Apium or Opium 

Family: Papaveraceae 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Parts used: Leaves and fruit 

Medicinal uses:  

The capsule is cut with blade and removes “charse‟‟  farm them. Relive pain, Hypnotic, Sedative,  Headache, Diarrhea and Dysentery. Seed are  nutritive and also used for cough. 

Plant No: 43 

Botanical Name: Amaranthus virdis L. 

English Name: slender amaranth 

Local Name: Chorlai 

Family: Amaranthaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Parts used: Leaves  

Medicinal uses:  

For Diuretic, lithasis, headache swelling and used  food and fodder. Traditional Ayurvedic medicine as  antipyretic agents, also for the treatment of  inflammation, ulcer, diabetic, asthma and  hyperlipidemia. 

Plant No: 44 

Botanical Name: Fumaria indica (Husskn.) H.N.  Pugsley 

English Name: Fumitory 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

It is used as a fodder as well as fuel. Shoots are also  used in diarrhea, blood purifier and fever. Fumeria  indicia is used in aches and pains, diarrhea, fever,  influenza, liver complaints, vomiting, constipation,  dyspepsia, blood purification, leucoderma,  anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic and, in  combination with black pepper, for jaundice. 

Plant No: 45 

Botanical Name: Medicago denticulata Willd  English Name: California bur clover 

Local Name: Feshtary  

Family: Fabaceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Moist Place  

Parts used: Leaves 

Medicinal uses:  

Used as food and for sugar control. It is used in the treatment of heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes,  indigestion, halitosis, constipation, and menopausal disorders in women. 

Plant No: 46 

Botanical Name: Taraxicum officinale (L.) English Name: dandelion 

Local Name: Ziar gully 

Family: Asteraceae 

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Dry Place  

Parts used: Roots 

Medicinal uses:  

Roots are used in diabetes and for kidney problems.  Fresh or dried dandelion herb is also used as a mild  appetite stimulant, and to improve upset stomach.  The root of the dandelion plant may act as a mild  laxative and has been used to improve digestion.  Preliminary research suggests that dandelion may  help improve liver and gallbladder function. 

Plant No: 47 

Botanical Name: Pinus roxburghii Sargent English Name: Chir pine or longleaf Indian pine Local Name: Nakhtar

Family: Pinaceae 

Habit: Tree  

Habitat: Dry Place 

Parts used: Whole tree

Medicinal uses:  

The resin locally known, as “Jaula” is a stimulant used for ulcers, snakebites, scorpion stings and skin  diseases. It is a blood purifier. Wood is an aromatic,  antiseptic, deodorant, and diaphoretic, stimulant and  is used in the burning of the body, cough, fainting, and ulceration. Wood is used as timber in construction,  and makes a good fuel. 

Plant No: 48 

Botanical Name: Euphorbia helioscopia L  English Name: Sun spurge  

Local Name: Mandarro 

Family: Euphorbiaceae  

Habit: Herb 

Habitat: Moist and damp places  

Parts used: Juice of leaves and root  

Medicinal uses:  

Leaves juice is used against scorpions and snack biting. Used for the removal of intestinal parasites.  Help in the treatment of chronic coughing and dysentery. Seeds are purgative. Latex is used for skin diseases and to extract the spine from the skin. 

Plant No: 49 

Botanical Name: Artimisia maritime L. 

English Name: Sea wormwood 

Local Name: Tarkha 

Family: Asteraceae 

Habit: Herbs  

Habitat: Dry Place  

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Use as shelter, fuel, Cough, cold, and anemia. It is used mainly as a tonic to the digestive system, in treating intermittent fevers and as a vermifuge. The  leaves and flowering shoots are anthelmintic,  antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue,  emmenagogue, febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic, tonic  and vermifuge 

Plant No: 50 

Botanical Name: Indigofera articulate gouan (L)  English Name: Indigo 

Local Name: Ghwarega 

Family: Papilonaceae. 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Mountain Areas  

Parts used: Whole plant 

Medicinal uses:  

Use as a fuel and shelter also used is fodder of cattle.  Pain, respiratory diseases, diarrhea, wound healing.  Is Indigofera a medicinal plant Indigofera species are widely employed in traditional medicine all around the world, against many ailments. 

Table: 1 Plants used for Fuels 

Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  43
image 1
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  44

Table: 2 Plants used for Furniture 

image 2
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  45

Table: 3 Plants Used for Fodder 

image 3
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  46

Table: 4 Plants used as Vegetable 

image 5
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  47

Table: 5 Plants used for Shelter 

image 6
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  48

Table: 6 Plants used for Ornamentals 

image 7
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  49

Table: 7 Plants Used for Food 

image 8
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  50

Table: 8 Plants Used for Medicine

image 9
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  51


Table: 9 Number of species and percentage 

image 10
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  52
image 11
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  53
image 15
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  54

Figure 1: Representation of Plants used for, Fuels,  Furniture, Fodder, Vegetable, Shelter,  Ornamentals, Food and Medicine 

image 14
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  55

Figure 2: Representation of Herbs, Shrubs and  Trees 

image 16
Ethnobotanical Study of Village Darangal Kambat Tehsil Samarbagh,  District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan  56

Figure 3: Representation of families and their  percentage 


In the present research study sum of 50 plant species belonging to 32 families was reported from the District Darangal Dir Lower. Different plant parts i.e., roots, rhizomes, tubers, leaves, stem,  wood, and fruits were used by the locals for various purposes in their daily life. Leaves were the most favored plant part used by an indigenous community comprised of 50 species (70.42%)  followed by stems (47 species, 66.87%), whole plant (13 species, 20.52%), fruits (09 species, 14%)  and roots (04 species, 5.71%). During the survey family Asteraceae was found to contribute the highest number of plant species (08) to the local usage.

It was followed by the family Papilionaceae  (06 species), Poaceae (05 species), Mimosaceae and Solanaceae (04 species each), Euphorbiaceae  (03 species), Apocynaceae, Amaranthaceae,  Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Chenopodiaceae,  Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Malvaceae, and Myrtaceae shared 02 species each while family  Arecaceae, Acanthaceae, Cactaceae, Asclepiadaceae,  Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae,  Cyperaceae, Canabaceae, Caryophyllaceae,  Fumariaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Primulaceae,  Oleaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Temaraceae,  Oxalidaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Solanaceae,  Apiaceae and Zygophylaceae were represented by one species each.

(Fatima et al. 2023) reported from  Punjab a total of 48 plant species belonging to 23  families used for various purposes by the local community. (Jan et al. 2011) reported from lower Dir that the family Asteraceae was the most important family with regard to its ethnobotanical value.

He documented 26 weed species belonging to 16  families. (Ijaz et al, 2017) reported a total of 172  medicinal taxa from Allai Valley, Pakistan used by the indigenous people for the treatment of various illnesses.

Popularly used 31 medicinal plants by the indigenous were reported from Northern Ethiopia  (Mesfin et al. 2013). In District Dir Lower the indigenous people mainly used wild herbs (44 spp.,  61.11%), followed by wild trees (16 spp., 23.61%)  and wild shrubs (11 spp., 15.06%). These plants were used for different purposes such as fodder, furniture,  fuel, oil, edible fruits, and vegetables. Most of the reported species 110were used for multipurpose.

In the present study it was concluded that 45 species  (63.5%) were used as fodder, 30 species (41.66%) for fuel, 10 species \(14.69%) for furniture, thatching species were 08 (11.95%), 07 species (9.58%) were used as vegetable, 04 species (7.04%) for hedge purpose, fruit species were 04 (6.04%), 03 species  (4.10%) were grown for ornamental purposes and 01  species (1.36%) for each of the following purposes;  coloring the clothes, oil for hairs, perfume, in surf industries and in making basket, ropes and hand fan.  (Barkatullah and Ibrar, 2011) reported 31 plants species from Malakand agency that were used in the area for fuel, 14 plant species for making furniture,  15 species for house construction particularly for thatching purposes, 47 species were most frequently used for fodder/forage, 40 species (23.68%) were consumed as vegetable and fruit.

There were 19  species grown around houses and crop fields as fences. (Hazrat et al., 2011) conducted survey in district Buner and reported 21 fuel plant species, 13  vegetables, 7 roof thatching species, 6 timber wood species and 40 species for medicinal purposes. 10%  of plant species were used for fuel and furniture from district Mana Angetu (Lulekal et al., 2008). 16  plant species were used as fuel at Jandool Valley, Dir  Lower (Nasrullah et al., 2012). In a similar study,  

(Ullah, 2021) reported 15 plant species used for furniture and 9 plant species used for ornamental purposes at Ushairy Valley, district Dir (Upper).  Cones of gymnosperm were used for decoration at  Poonch Valley Azad Kashmir Pakistan (Khan,  2008).04 bushy and spiny species were used as borders around the parks and houses. The oil of  Eruca sativa as used a hair tonic while the oil of  Pongamia pinnata is used for cooking purposes. The  Osmium bacilicum is used in perfumes due to its fragrance. Aloe vera fleshy leaves are used in surf industries. The ash of Calotropis procera is used as a  cloth coloring agent. Lack of proper education and poor economic condition of the area has led to the deforestation of natural vegetation, which is added by the unavailability of alternative fuel. 


The current medicinal survey was carried out on medicinal plants of Village Darangal Tehsil Samar  Bagh Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A total of 50 plant species were collected from March to September along with their local name, botanical name, English name, family, habit, part use, method of use, and  medicinal use. The herbaceous cover was dominated with (40%) species followed by trees with (42%)  species and then by shrubs with (18%) species.

We concluded that the studied area is rich floristically with medicinal plants and is important medicinally and economically. But unfortunately, due to unawareness some medicinally and economically important plants like Pinus species have high market value which are cutting at an alarming rate. Because of overutilization, over-collection, over-exploitation,  habitat degradation, overharvesting, deforestation,  population explosion, grazing and deforestation the area is under high biotic pressure. 


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