|ARTICLE INFORMATION ||ABSTRACT|
|Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com|
Received in revised form: 26.05.2023
|Fall armyworm (Spodoptera fergpirda) is one of the destructive insect pests of agricultural crops, particularly maize in the field condition. It has severely damaged the maize in the early stage of crops. The efficacy of different insecticides such as Emamectin Benzoate 019EC, Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 14% WDG, Lufeneron 05EC, Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC, Chlorantraniliprole 20SC and control were used in the study. In the first spray maximum population reduction of S. fergpirda (90.377 %) was recorded for Chlorantraniliprole 20SC followed by Chlorantraniliprole+Thiamethoxome 14%WDG (68.287%), Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (58.283 %), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC (53.117%), and Lufeneron 05EC (37.800%), whereas minimum population reduction of S. fergpirda was observed from control treatment. Similarly in the second spray highest population of S. fergpirda reduction was determined for Chlorantraniliprole 20SC (91.680%) followed by Chlorantraniliprole +Thiamethoxome 14% WDG (78.307%), Chlorantraniliprole +Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (63.683%), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC (54.823%), Lufeneron 05EC (34.797%) and lowest population reduction was recorded in control treatments. Therefore, the findings of the current study Chlorantraniliprole 20SC was found more effective for the management of S. fergipirda on maize crop under field conditions. |
Maize (Zea mays L.) belongs to the family Gramineae and one of the most important cereal crops after wheat and rice in Pakistan (Bukhsh et al. 2011), The maize crop is used all over the world for both food and feed, it contains high-value food for humans as well as stockpiles for animal feed. (Abebe and Feyisa, 2017;
Adnan, 2020). The nutrition is found in the grains of Maize as it contains 72% starch, 10% protein, 4.8% oil, 8.5% fiber, 3% sugar, and 1% ash. (Chaudhary, 1983). The various factors involved in low maize production in Pakistan. Maize crop is infested by a number of insect pests such as armyworm (Spodoptera fergipirda), stem borer (Chilopartellus), thrips (Thrips tabaci), aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis), shoot fly (Atherigona soccata) and termite are main pest causing significant losses (Arabjafari and Jalai, 2007; Nabeel et al., 2018).
Among all insect pests, the fall armyworm Spodoptera fergipirda is one of the main destructive and serious pests for maize. (Assefa and Ayalew, 2019). Fall Armyworm S. fergpirda originated in the United States, but recent reports from the Asia Pacific and Africa. The Fall Armyworm has caused great international concern since its destruction in Asia in 2018 and Africa in 2016 (Deshmukh et al. 2021).
Its damage has been reported from more than 80 crops such as maize, millet, rice, sugarcane, millet, and cotton being the main hosts of fall armyworm S. fergipirda (Abrahams et al. 2017; Cock et al. 2017; Montezano et al. 2018). The damage caused to the maize crop by the S. fergipirda has been recorded at about 15-73%. (Hruska and Gould, 1997; Lima et al., 2010). Many generations of S. fergipirda in a year and temperature have a significant role in its development (Belay, 2011).
The larvae are the harmful stage of S. fergipirda because the first and second instars usually consume one side of the leaves and make them into skeletons, while the last instars eat all parts of their hosts (Abrahams et al. 2017). According to several reports, many of these pesticides have not been effective. Therefore, in addition to these pesticides, some new pesticides need to be re-examined for effective management of S. fergipirdas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out in the field of Plant Protection Research Institute, Tandojam, in 2021. The experiment was arranged Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) where each treatment replicates three times. The six insecticides Emamectin Benzoate, Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC, Lufeneron 05EC, Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 14% WDG, Chlorantraniliprole 20SC and control were tested against S. fergipirda and subsequent application of insecticides was given at 20 days interval with help of hand knapsack sprayer.
The size of each replicated plot is 50×33 sq ft. The data were taken population of S. fergipirda larvae based on the appearance and fresh body waste in the leaf whorl of 25 plants randomly from the experimental plot. The data was recorded before spray after 48 hours, 96 hours, and after one week. The collected data was analyzed using (ANOVA) Analysis of Variance and (LSD) least square difference with computer software STATISTIX 8.1. Moreover, the percentage reduction in pest population after the application of various
insecticides were calculated using Abbot’s (1925) formula as given below:
The results showed (Table 1) that all the treatments were found significantly different from the control in reducing the larval population of S. fergipirda in the first spray at 48, 96, and one week after spray. The data indicated that the larval population before spray was non-significant (F = 0.55; P = 0.7375) difference among all treatments. The S. fergipirda larval population after 48 hours of spray, showed highly significant (F = 60.38; P = 0.0000) differences among the treatments.
The minimum population of fall armyworm S. fergipirda (3.61±0.56/25 plants) was recorded for Chlorantraniliprole 20SC followed by Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 14 % WDG (8.13±0.69/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (11.29±0.80/25 plants), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC (13.97±0.83/25plants) and Lufeneron 05EC (19.45±0.80/25 plants).
The data showed that the maximum larval population of fall army worm S. fergipirda (24.05±1.65/25 plants) was found on the control treatment. The results indicated that the population of S. fergipirda after 96 hours of spraying showed (F = 108.34; P<=0.0000) a highly significant difference in all treatments.
The lowest population (1.92±0.32/25 plants) of fall army worm S. fergipirda was observed on Chlorantraniliprole 20SC followed by Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 14% WDG (8.58 ± 0.64/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (10.7 ± 0.82/25 plants), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019EC (11.09±0.86/25plants) and Lufeneron 05EC (14.61±0.79/25 plants).
However, the highest population of fall armyworm S. fergipirda (27.56±1.25) was recorded on the control treatment. The data observed on the population of fall armyworm S. fergipirda after one week of spray reveal a highly significantly difference (F = 75.31; P=0.0000) in the treatments.
The results showed that the spray of Chlorantraniliprole 20SC found the lowest population (2.06±0.44/25 plants) of fall army worm S. fergpirda, followed by Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 14% WDG (9.01±0.63/25plants), Chlorantraniliprole + Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (11.65±1.09/25 plants), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019EC (12.53±0.74/25 plants) and Lufeneron 05EC (15.64 ± 1.03/25 plants). The highest population (29.68±1.82/25 plants) of fall armyworm S. fergipirda was found on the Control treatment.
(Figure 1) showed that the corrected percentage of the population fall armyworm S. fergipirda reduction after 1st spray was recorded the highest reduction of pest population (84.98 %) was recorded for Chlorantraniliprole 20 SC treatments after 48 hours of spray, followed by Chlorantraniliprole ±
Thiamethoxome 14 % WDG (66.18 %), Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 17.5 %SC (53.05%), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019 EC (41.81%) and Lufeneron 05EC (19.12 %). Moreover, overall maximum reduction percentage of population fall army worm S. fergpirda (90.377%) was found on Chlorantraniliprole 20SC followed by Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 14 % WDG (68.287 %), Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (58.283 %), Emamectin Benzoate 019 EC 019EC (53.117 %) and Lufeneron 05EC (37.800 %) respectively.
Table 1: Efficacy of different insecticides against fall army worm S. fergperda on maize crop in 1st spray
|Treatment||Dose/acre||Pre-Treatment||Post Treatment||Reduction Percentage|
|48 hours||96 hours||One week|
|Emamectin Benzoate 019EC||200g/acre||24.53±1.65a||13.97±0.83c||11.09±0.86c||12.53±0.74c||53.117%|
|Chlorantraniliprole+Thiamethoxo me 14% WDG||150ml/acre||26.30±1.82a||8.13±0.69e||8.58±0.64d||9.01±0.63d||68.287%|
LSD values @ P < 0.05 [Pre-spray = 5.0848; 48-Hours = 2.6693; 96-Hours = 2.2770; One week = 2.9407
Figure 1: Corrected percentage population reduction of S. fergipirda on maize after 1st spray
The results of the second spray showed (Table 2) pre-treatment observation revealed that the nonsignificant difference (F=0.84; P = 0.5214) as the population of S. fergipirda ranged between (12.06±1.61 to 13.48±1.31/25 plants). Similarly, in the first spray data indicated that highly significant difference (F=40.71; P=0.0000) among all treatments after 48 hours of spray.
The lowest S. fergipirda population (1.54±0.37/25 plants) was recorded for Chlorantraniliprole 20SC followed by Chlorantraniliprole± Thiamethoxome 14% WDG (3.18±0.53/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole± Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (5.58±0.82/25 plants), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019EC (6.86±0.64/25 plants) and Lufeneron 05EC (10.14±0.80/25 plants).
While the highest population (14.48±1.03/25 plants) was recorded from the control treatment. The data indicated that a highly significant difference (F=48.00; P=0.0000) was recorded after 96 hours of spray. The minimum population of S. fergipirda (1.01±0.30/25plants) was recorded in Chlorantraniliprole 20SC after 96 hours of spray followed by Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 14% WDG (2.93±0.48/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole±
Thiamethoxome 17.5% SC (5.30 ± 0.68/25 plants), Emamectin Benzoate 019 EC 019 EC (6.18±0.77/25 plants) and Lufeneron 05 EC (9.06±0.76/25 plants) while the highest population (15.10±1.07/25 plants) was recorded on control treatment respectively.
The results showed a highly significant difference (F=30.77; P = 0.0000) in the application of various insecticides after one week of spray. The data indicated that the highest population (1.30 ± 0.30/25 plants) of S. fergipirda was recorded in Chlorantraniliprole 20 SC followed by Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 14% WDG (4.02±0.53/25 plants), Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 17.5%SC (6.05±0.77/25 plants), Emamectin Benzoate 019EC 019 EC (8.05 ± 0.79/25 plants) and Lufeneron 05 EC (11.18 ± 0.96/25 plants).
The data indicated (Figure 2) that the maximum pest population reduction of S. fergpirda (91.680%) was recorded in Chlorantraniliprole 20SC treatment, followed by Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 14 % WDG (78.307 %), Chlorantraniliprole ± Thiamethoxome 17.5 % SC (63.683 %), Emamectin Benzoate 019 EC 019 EC (54.823 %) and Lufeneron 05EC (34.797 %) respectively.
Table 2: Efficacy of different insecticides against fall armyworm S. fergperda on maize crop in 2nd spray
|Treatment||Dose||Pre Treatment||Post Treatment||Reduction Percentage|
|48 hours||96 hours||One week|
|Emamectin Benzoate 019EC||200g/acre||13.48±1.31a||6.86±0.64c||6.18±0.77c||8.05±0.79c||54.823%|
|Chlorantraniliprole±Thiamethoxome 14% WDG||150ml/acre||11.65±1.57a||3.18±0.53d||2.93±0.48d||4.02±0.53de||78.307%|
LSD values @ P < 0.05 [Pre-spray = 4.0761; 48-Hours = 2.0186; 96-Hours = 2.0055; One week = 2.8032]
The field experiment was conducted on the efficacy of different insecticides against S. fergipirda on maize under field conditions. It has been reported that S. frugiperda is a serious pest of field corn, cotton, and grain sorghum (Hardke et al. 2011). The current study was conducted to test the different insecticides against S. frugiperda. The findings of the present study that chlorantraniliprol 20 SC significantly reduced the S. fergipirda on maize crops under field conditions.
Deshmukh et al. (2020) supported that the chlorantraniliprol 18.5 SC was found most effective pesticides against S. fergipirda followed by emmevtin benzoate 5 SG, spinetoram 11.7 SC, flubendiamide 480 SC, indoxocarb 14.5 SC, lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC and novaluron 10 EC on maize.
Similarly, the application of chlorantraniliprol reduced the maximum infestation of S. fergipirda on maize whorls followed by Lambda cyhalothrin, methoxyfenozide and control after 3 days of treatment (Hardke et al. 2012). Thrash et al. (2013) agreed that chlorantraniliprol and cyntraniliprol significantly reduce the larval population of S. fergipirda in the soybean field.
Moreover, the mixture of insecticides chlorfenapyre + chlorantraniliprol and Lufenuron is recommended for the management of S. fergipirda in sugarcane crops in Guangxi, China (Song et al. 2020). Li et al. (2021) mentioned that Chlorantraniliprol is effective against the S. fruguperda through drip irrigation and its effect was longer than artificial or drone spray. Furthermore, Chlorantraniliprol had a very strong transport capacity to move from stems to leaves and concentrated in the upper leaves of maize. Chlorantraniliprole was not detected in any plant parts at the time of harvesting.
Muraro et al. (2020) agreed that seeds of maize crops treated with Chlorantraniliprol alone or combined with imidacloprid reduce the infestation of S. fruguperda under field as well as laboratory conditions. Villegas et al. (2019) mentioned that seeds treated with chlorantraniliprol provide sufficient control against S. fergipirda, sugarcane borer and water weevil at an early stage of rice crop. Therefore, these findings confirm the results of the current study.
Figure 2: Corrected percentage population reduction of S. fergipirda on maize after 2nd spray
The present study concluded that among the five insecticides, all the insecticides were more efficient than the control in decreasing the S. fergipirda population. However, chlorantraniliprol 20SC insecticides were found most effective for reducing the S. fergipirda infestation on Maize.
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