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Best Trees for Pacific Northwest: Thrive in the Evergreen Paradise!

Dr Ahsanur Rahman, PHD

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Best Trees for Pacific Northwest
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The best trees for the pacific northwest include douglas fir, western hemlock, sitka spruce, and redwood, due to their ability to thrive in this region’s moist climate and provide valuable ecosystem services. These native tree species offer many benefits, such as erosion control, wildlife habitat, and carbon sequestration.

Additionally, their sturdy timber is highly sought after for construction purposes. Planning and incorporating these trees into landscaping or restoration projects can enhance the natural beauty of the pacific northwest while also promoting sustainable land management practices and preserving the region’s unique ecological heritage for future generations.

Best Trees for Pacific Northwest: Thrive in the Evergreen Paradise!
Best Trees for Pacific Northwest: Thrive in the Evergreen Paradise! 12

Characteristics Of Pacific Northwest

The pacific northwest is known for its diverse range of trees that thrive in its unique climate. From towering evergreens like douglas firs and western red cedars to stunning flowering trees like dogwoods and magnolias, the region offers a rich variety of options for those looking to enhance their landscapes with the best trees.

The pacific northwest region is known for its unique environmental conditions, making it important to select trees that are well-suited to this specific area. Understanding the climate, rainfall patterns, and soil types is crucial when determining the best trees for the pacific northwest.

Climate And Rainfall Patterns:

  • Moderate temperatures: The pacific northwest experiences a mild, temperate climate throughout the year, with warm summers and cool winters. This climate provides an ideal growing environment for a wide range of tree species.
  • High rainfall: The region is characterized by abundant rainfall, especially during the fall and winter months. The average annual precipitation in the pacific northwest is relatively high, which contributes to the lush growth and greenery that the area is known for.
  • Mild frost: While the region generally experiences mild winters, occasional frost and freezing temperatures can occur. It is important to choose trees that can tolerate these mild frosts and adapt to the changing seasons.

Soil Types And Compositions:

  • Acidic soils: The pacific northwest is predominantly composed of acidic soils, which can impact the type of trees that thrive in the region. Acidic soils tend to have a lower ph level, requiring trees that are adapted to this specific soil condition for optimal growth.
  • Moisture retention: The region’s soil has good moisture retention capabilities, often remaining damp due to the high rainfall. This aspect is advantageous for trees that prefer moist soil conditions and can effectively utilize the available water.
  • Nutrient-rich soils: The pacific northwest’s soils are typically rich in organic matter and nutrients, providing a fertile environment for tree growth. The nutrient content of the soil contributes to the overall health and vigor of trees in the region.

Understanding the unique characteristics of the pacific northwest’s climate, rainfall patterns, and soil compositions is vital for selecting trees that will thrive in this environment. By considering these factors, you can choose trees that are well-adapted to the region and create a vibrant, beautiful landscape in your pacific northwest garden.

Native Trees Of Pacific Northwest

Discover the finest native trees for the pacific northwest, boasting stunning beauty and adaptability to the region’s unique climate. From majestic douglas firs to vibrant red cedars, these trees offer a perfect blend of aesthetic appeal and resilience.

Overview Of Native Tree Species

Native trees of the pacific northwest are an essential part of the region’s biodiversity and ecosystem. These trees have evolved over time to thrive in the unique climate and environmental conditions of the area. By planting native trees, you can contribute to the preservation of the local ecosystem while enjoying the many benefits they provide.

Adaptability And Resilience Of Native Trees In The Region

Native trees in the pacific northwest have developed remarkable adaptability and resilience to the region’s specific characteristics. Here are some key reasons why they are well-suited for the area:

  • Climate adaptability: Native trees are naturally acclimated to the pacific northwest’s temperate rainforest climate, characterized by mild, wet winters and cool summers. They can withstand heavy rainfall, thrive in the moist soil, and handle temperature fluctuations effectively.
  • Soil compatibility: Native trees have adapted to the acidic, nutrient-rich soils prevalent in the region. They are well-equipped to access the necessary nutrients and moisture from the soil, allowing them to grow and thrive in these conditions.
  • Disease and pest resistance: Native trees have developed resistance to common diseases and pests in the pacific northwest. Their genetic makeup and long-term exposure to local pests and diseases have enhanced their ability to withstand and combat these threats effectively.

Benefits Of Planting Native Trees For Biodiversity

Choosing to plant native trees in the pacific northwest offers several noteworthy benefits for biodiversity preservation and overall ecosystem health. Consider the following advantages:

  • Habitat creation: Native trees provide essential habitat for various wildlife species. Their dense foliage, branches, and trunks serve as homes and nesting sites for birds, squirrels, insects, and other creatures, contributing to the overall biodiversity of the region.
  • Food sources: Native trees produce fruits, seeds, and nuts that are vital food sources for wildlife. By planting native species, you help sustain the local food chain, ensuring a healthy and diverse wildlife population.
  • Erosion control: Native trees help prevent soil erosion, especially in areas prone to heavy rainfall and steep slopes. Their extensive root systems stabilize the soil, reducing the risk of landslides and protecting water quality in nearby streams and rivers.
  • Carbon sequestration: Native trees play a crucial role in capturing and storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis. This helps mitigate climate change by reducing the amount of greenhouse gases in the air.
  • Aesthetics and cultural significance: Native trees contribute to the natural beauty of the pacific northwest landscape and hold cultural significance for indigenous communities. By planting these trees, we can celebrate and honor the rich heritage of the region.

Native trees in the pacific northwest are not only resilient and adaptable to the region’s unique characteristics but also offer numerous benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem preservation. By planting native species, you can make a positive impact on the environment while enjoying the beauty and diversity of the local flora and fauna.

Coniferous Trees For Pacific Northwest

Discover the best coniferous trees for the pacific northwest region. These hardy evergreens thrive in the region’s climate and provide beautiful year-round foliage.

The pacific northwest is known for its lush and diverse forests, and coniferous trees play a vital role in its ecosystem. These trees not only provide aesthetic value but also offer various benefits to the environment. In this section, we will explore two of the most iconic coniferous trees in the pacific northwest: the douglas fir and the western red cedar.

Douglas Fir

Characteristics And Growth Habits:

  • Tall and majestic: Douglas fir (pseudotsuga menziesii) is one of the tallest trees in north america, reaching heights of up to 250 feet.
  • Resilient and long-lived: These trees have a lifespan of up to 1,000 years and are known for their resilience against harsh environmental conditions.
  • Cone production: Douglas firs produce distinctive, cylindrical cones that measure around 2.5 to 4 inches in length.

Best Planting Practices And Care Tips:

  • Location selection: Choose a site with well-drained soil and ample sunlight for optimal growth.
  • Watering: Young douglas firs require regular watering, especially during dry spells. Once established, they are more drought-tolerant.
  • Mulching: Apply a layer of organic mulch around the base of the tree to retain moisture and suppress weed growth.
  • Pruning: Prune dead or diseased branches to promote healthy growth and maintain a desirable shape.

Landscaping Ideas With Douglas Fir:

  • Privacy screen: Planting a row of douglas firs can create an effective privacy screen due to their dense foliage.
  • Wildlife habitat: These trees provide habitat and food for a variety of wildlife, making them an excellent addition to wildlife-friendly landscapes.
  • Accent tree: The towering presence of a douglas fir can serve as a focal point in any landscape design, adding visual interest and verticality.

Western Red Cedar

Benefits And Uses Of Western Red Cedar:

  • Natural beauty: Western red cedar (thuja plicata) is prized for its rich red-brown color and fine-grained texture, making it sought after for outdoor construction and decorative purposes.
  • Decay resistance: Due to its natural oils and tannins, this species is highly resistant to decay, thus making it an ideal choice for outdoor structures such as fences and decks.
  • Aromatic qualities: The distinct aroma of western red cedar is not only pleasant but also acts as a natural insect repellent.

Suitable Growing Conditions For This Species:

  • Moisture requirements: Western red cedars thrive in well-drained soil that retains moisture without becoming overly saturated. Regular watering may be necessary during periods of drought.
  • Light requirements: Although they can tolerate some shade, western red cedars prefer full sunlight for optimal growth.
  • Climate adaptability: These trees are well-suited to the cool and damp climate of the pacific northwest.

Maintenance And Pruning Recommendations:

  • Regular inspection: Check for any signs of disease or pest infestation and take appropriate action if necessary.
  • Pruning for shape: Trim any stray or crossing branches to maintain an attractive, well-balanced form.
  • Crown thinning: Periodically thinning the canopy allows for better air circulation and minimizes the risk of wind damage.

Both the douglas fir and the western red cedar are iconic coniferous trees of the pacific northwest. Whether you are looking to enhance your landscape’s privacy, create a wildlife-friendly habitat, or add natural beauty to your outdoor structures, these trees are excellent choices.

With proper planting, care, and maintenance, these towering giants will thrive and continue to grace the pacific northwest’s landscapes for generations to come.

Deciduous Trees For Pacific Northwest

Discover the top deciduous trees that thrive in the pacific northwest, providing stunning beauty with their vibrant foliage and adaptability to the region’s climate. Experience the best trees for the pacific northwest in your own backyard.

Bigleaf Maple

The bigleaf maple, scientifically known as acer macrophyllum, is a beautiful deciduous tree native to the pacific northwest. With its distinctive large leaves and stunning seasonal changes, it is a popular choice for many garden enthusiasts in the region. Here are some key features and tips for planting the bigleaf maple:

  • Features and seasonal changes of bigleaf maple:
  • Large leaves: The bigleaf maple lives up to its name with its broad, palmate leaves that can reach up to 12 inches in diameter. These leaves provide ample shade during the summer months.
  • Canopy structure: This tree develops a rounded canopy, creating a lovely and lush appearance in any landscape.
  • Spring blossoms: In the spring, clusters of small yellowish-green flowers bloom, adding a touch of vibrancy to the tree.
  • Fall color display: One of the highlights of the bigleaf maple is its stunning fall foliage. The leaves turn vibrant shades of yellow, orange, and red, creating a breathtaking display.
  • Bark and trunk: The bark of the bigleaf maple is smooth and gray when young but becomes fissured and develops a brownish-gray color with age.
  • Recommended locations for planting:
  • Moist soil: Bigleaf maple thrives in moist, well-drained soil conditions. It is commonly found near streams, riverbanks, and moist forests in its natural habitat.
  • Partial shade to full sun: While it can tolerate partial shade, the bigleaf maple prefers full sun exposure to promote healthy growth and vibrant foliage colors.
  • Fall color display and landscape enhancements:
  • Urban and rural settings: The striking fall color display of the bigleaf maple makes it an ideal choice for both urban and rural landscapes.
  • Focal point: Planting this tree as a focal point can add visual interest and enhance the overall beauty of a garden.
  • Contrast and texture: The large leaves and attractive bark of the bigleaf maple provide an excellent contrast and texture to other plants and trees in the landscape.

Pacific Dogwood

The pacific dogwood, scientifically known as cornus nuttallii, is a native deciduous tree that offers unique flowering characteristics and brings elegance to the pacific northwest. Here’s what you need to know about this captivating tree:

  • Unique flowering characteristics of pacific dogwood:
  • Showy blossoms: The pacific dogwood produces clusters of small, creamy white flowers surrounded by four large, showy bracts in spring. These delicate blooms add a touch of beauty and charm to any garden.
  • Attracts wildlife: The flowers attract butterflies and other pollinators, making the tree a valuable addition to a wildlife-friendly garden.
  • Soil and watering requirements:
  • Moist, well-drained soil: Pacific dogwood thrives in soil with good drainage. It is vital to avoid waterlogged conditions to prevent root rot.
  • Regular watering: While established trees can withstand dry periods, regular watering during the growing season is necessary for optimal growth and flowering.
  • Protecting against pests and diseases:
  • Powdery mildew prevention: Pacific dogwood is susceptible to powdery mildew, a fungal disease. Ensuring proper air circulation and avoiding overhead watering can help prevent this issue.
  • Insect pests: Aphids and dogwood borers can occasionally infest pacific dogwood. Regular inspection and appropriate treatment can help protect the tree from these pests.

Remember, the bigleaf maple and pacific dogwood are just two of the remarkable deciduous trees suitable for the pacific northwest. By planting these trees in your garden, you can enjoy their unique features and contribute to the natural beauty of the region.

Fruit Trees For Pacific Northwest

Discover the best fruit trees for the pacific northwest region, providing you with delicious home-grown produce. Embrace the unique climate and choose from a variety of trees that thrive in this area, ensuring a bountiful harvest for years to come.

The pacific northwest region is well-known for its optimal growing conditions for fruit trees. If you’re planning to add some fruit trees to your garden or orchard, here are some top options for the pacific northwest.

Apple Trees

  • Popular apple varieties for the region:
  • Honeycrisp: Known for its crisp texture and sweet-tart flavor, honeycrisp apples are highly sought after. They do well in the pacific northwest due to their resistance to diseases like apple scab.
  • Granny smith: These green apples are known for their tart flavor, making them ideal for baking pies and making sauces. They thrive in the cooler climate of the pacific northwest.
  • Fuji: Fuji apples are a favorite among many due to their sweet and juicy taste. They have good disease resistance and can handle the wetter weather in this region.
  • Proper orchard management practices:
  • Pruning: Regular pruning helps apple trees maintain their shape and promotes better fruit production. Remove dead or diseased branches and open the canopy to allow for adequate sunlight penetration.
  • Fertilization: Apply a balanced fertilizer in the spring and monitor the tree’s nutrient needs throughout the growing season. Fertilize based on soil tests and the tree’s overall health.
  • Pest control: Implement integrated pest management strategies to control pests effectively. This includes monitoring for pests, using traps, and applying organic or chemical treatments when necessary.
  • Harvesting and storage tips:
  • Harvest: Apples are ready to harvest when they easily come off the tree with a gentle twist. Check their color and firmness as indicators of ripeness.
  • Storage: Store apples in a cool, dark place with good airflow to extend their shelf life. Avoid storing them near ethylene-producing fruits, as this can accelerate ripening.

Cherry Trees

  • Different types of cherries suitable for pacific northwest:
  • Bing: Bing cherries are a well-known sweet variety that thrives in the pacific northwest. They have a deep red color and excellent flavor, making them perfect for fresh eating.
  • Rainier: Rainier cherries are a prized variety known for their yellow skin with a bright red blush. They have a sweet and delicate flavor that’s highly sought after.
  • Lapins: Lapins cherries are a self-fertile variety that produces dark red, sweet cherries. They are disease resistant and a great choice for home orchards.
  • Pollination requirements and pruning techniques:
  • Pollination: Most cherry tree varieties require cross-pollination with another compatible cherry tree. Ensure you have appropriate pollination partners to maximize fruit set.
  • Pruning: Prune cherry trees during the dormant season to remove dead or diseased wood and to shape the tree. Thin out branches to allow for better air circulation and light penetration.
  • Dealing with common cherry tree pests:
  • Aphids: Regularly inspect cherry trees for aphids and control infestations using natural predators, insecticidal soaps, or horticultural oils.
  • Cherry fruit fly: Place sticky traps near the trees to monitor and capture adult flies. Apply appropriate insecticides based on local guidelines to prevent infestation and fruit damage.

Now that you have a better understanding of the best fruit trees for the pacific northwest, you can start planning your fruit-filled garden or orchard. Happy growing!

Ornamental Trees For Pacific Northwest

Discover the best ornamental trees for the pacific northwest, providing beauty and charm with their vibrant colors and unique shapes. These trees thrive in the region’s climate and add a touch of natural elegance to any landscape.

Japanese Maple

Japanese maple trees are a popular choice for ornamental purposes in the pacific northwest due to their stunning aesthetic appeal and versatility in landscaping. With their unique leaf shapes and striking hues, these trees can add a touch of elegance and beauty to any garden or yard.

Here are some key points to consider when it comes to japanese maple trees:

  • Varieties and leaf colors of japanese maple:
  • There is a wide variety of japanese maple trees to choose from, each with its own unique characteristics and leaf colors.
  • Popular varieties include the acer palmatum, acer japonicum, and acer shirasawanum.
  • Leaf colors range from vibrant reds and oranges to delicate pinks and purples.
  • Landscaping ideas and placement suggestions:
  • Japanese maple trees make excellent focal points in gardens, especially when placed strategically to create balance and contrast.
  • They can be used to frame entrances, highlight specific areas, or create a sense of privacy.
  • Consider planting them near water features, pathways, or in containers for a visually appealing effect.
  • Caring for japanese maple during winter:
  • Japanese maple trees may need some extra care during the winter months to protect them from frost damage.
  • Apply a layer of mulch around the base of the tree to insulate the roots and retain moisture.
  • Consider wrapping the tree with burlap or providing a windbreak to shield it from harsh winds.

Flowering Dogwood

Flowering dogwood trees are another excellent choice for adding aesthetic value to the pacific northwest landscape. These trees are known for their beautiful flowers and attractive foliage. Here’s what you need to know about flowering dogwood trees:

  • Flowering seasons and color variations:
  • Flowering dogwood trees offer a spectacular display of blooms in the springtime, typically from april to may.
  • The flowers come in various hues, including pink, white, and occasionally red.
  • The vibrant colors of the flowers make them a stunning addition to any garden or yard.
  • Ideal growing conditions for vibrant blooms:
  • Flowering dogwood trees thrive in partially shaded areas with well-drained soil.
  • They prefer soil that is rich in organic matter and slightly acidic.
  • Consider planting them near taller trees or structures that can provide some shade during the hottest parts of the day.
  • Pest and disease management for healthier trees:
  • Flowering dogwood trees are susceptible to certain pests and diseases, including dogwood borer, powdery mildew, and anthracnose.
  • Regularly inspect the trees for signs of infestation or disease and take appropriate measures, such as applying insecticides or fungicides.
  • Proper pruning and maintenance can also help improve the tree’s overall health and resilience to pests and diseases.

Incorporating japanese maple and flowering dogwood trees into your pacific northwest landscape can enhance its visual appeal and create a stunning outdoor environment. Remember to choose the right varieties, consider their placement, provide proper care during winter, and manage pests and diseases for healthier and more vibrant trees.

Choosing The Right Tree For Your Landscape

Discover the ideal trees for your pacific northwest landscape and bring beauty and harmony to your outdoor space. From majestic conifers to flowering trees, choose the perfect tree that thrives in the region’s unique climate and enhances your surroundings.

Assessing Site Conditions And Space Availability

  • Determine the amount of sunlight your landscape receives: Consider whether you have full sun, partial shade, or full shade before selecting a tree species.
  • Evaluate soil type and drainage: Different trees thrive in different soil conditions, so it’s crucial to know if your soil is clay, loam, or sandy. Additionally, assessing proper drainage is important to prevent waterlogged soil.
  • Consider the tree’s mature size: Make sure to factor in the available space in your landscape. Consider the height and spread of the tree at maturity to ensure it fits appropriately in the allotted area.
  • Check for nearby structures and utilities: Keep in mind the proximity of buildings, power lines, and underground utilities when selecting a tree. You want to avoid any potential conflicts or obstructions.

Factors To Consider When Selecting Trees For Specific Purposes

  • Aesthetics and beauty: Choose trees that offer visual appeal and complement the overall design of your landscape.
  • Environmental conditions: Take into account the hardiness of the tree and its ability to withstand specific climate conditions, such as high winds or heavy rainfall.
  • Wildlife support: Consider trees that provide food, shelter, or nesting opportunities for local wildlife, such as birds and butterflies.
  • Privacy and screening: If you desire privacy or want to block unsightly views, opt for trees with dense foliage or fast growth rates.
  • Maintenance requirements: Some trees require more maintenance than others. Consider your willingness and ability to care for the tree, including pruning, watering, and protecting against pests or diseases.

Combining Different Tree Species For A Diverse And Visually Appealing Landscape

  • Select a variety of trees with contrasting characteristics: Choose trees with different leaf shapes, textures, colors, and growth habits. This will create visual interest and depth in your landscape.
  • Plan for year-round interest: Select trees that offer changing foliage colors, flowers, or interesting bark patterns. This will ensure your landscape remains visually appealing throughout the year.
  • Consider different growth rates: Combine trees with slow, moderate, and fast growth rates to create various levels and dimensions in your landscape.
  • Balance tree sizes and forms: Pair tall, upright trees with shorter, spreading trees to create harmony and balance in your design.
  • Create diverse habitats: Incorporate trees that cater to a range of wildlife, providing food and shelter for birds, insects, and other small animals.

Remember, choosing the right tree for your landscape involves carefully assessing site conditions and space availability, considering factors such as aesthetics, environmental conditions, and maintenance requirements, and combining different tree species to create a diverse and visually appealing landscape. By following these guidelines, you can ensure your pacific northwest landscape thrives with the best selection of trees.

Tree Care And Maintenance Tips

Get expert tips on tree care and maintenance for the pacific northwest. Discover the best trees that thrive in this region and keep your landscape healthy and vibrant.

Pacific northwest is known for its lush greenery and abundant rainfall, making it an ideal region for growing trees. However, to ensure the optimal health and longevity of your trees, proper care and maintenance are essential. In this section, we will provide you with some valuable tips to help you maintain your trees in the pacific northwest.

Read on to discover the best practices for watering and fertilization, pruning techniques, as well as pest and disease prevention strategies.

Watering And Fertilization Guidelines:

  • Water your trees deeply and infrequently: Instead of frequent shallow watering, provide a thorough soak once or twice a week, depending on the weather and the type of tree. This encourages deep root growth.
  • Use mulch to retain moisture: Apply a layer of organic mulch around the base of your trees to retain soil moisture, prevent weed growth, and provide insulation during extreme temperatures.
  • Avoid over-fertilization: While fertilization can benefit tree growth, excessive use of fertilizers can harm the environment and the tree itself. Follow the recommended guidelines for the specific type of tree and use slow-release fertilizers for sustained nutrition.

Pruning Techniques For Healthy Growth:

  • Prune during dormancy: The best time to prune your trees is during their dormant period in late winter or early spring. This helps encourage healthy growth after any potential winter damage or stress.
  • Remove dead or diseased branches: Regularly inspect your trees for dead or diseased branches and remove them promptly to prevent the spread of diseases and improve overall tree health.
  • Maintain a balanced canopy: Prune to create a balanced canopy by removing crossing or rubbing branches, as well as any branches that are growing towards the tree’s center. This improves airflow, reduces the risk of branch breakage, and enhances the tree’s aesthetic appeal.

Monitoring Pests And Diseases And Implementing Prevention Strategies:

  • Regularly inspect your trees: Keep a close eye on your trees for any signs of pests, diseases, or abnormalities. Look for wilting leaves, unusual discoloration, or presence of pests such as aphids, caterpillars, or beetles.
  • Take preventive measures: To prevent pests and diseases from infesting your trees, promote overall tree health through proper watering, fertilization, and pruning. Additionally, maintain good sanitation by promptly removing fallen leaves or debris.
  • Seek professional advice if needed: If you notice significant damage or are unsure about the identification or treatment of pests or diseases, consult an arborist or tree care professional for guidance and appropriate intervention.

Remember, by implementing these tree care and maintenance tips, you can ensure the longevity, vitality, and beauty of your trees in the pacific northwest, creating a thriving and vibrant landscape for years to come.

Frequently Asked Questions Of Best Trees For Pacific Northwest

Can Fruit Trees Grow Well In The Pacific Northwest?

Yes, fruit trees can thrive in the pacific northwest due to its mild climate and ample rainfall. Popular fruit tree varieties include apples, pears, cherries, and plums. Make sure to choose disease-resistant varieties and provide proper care such as regular pruning and adequate sun exposure.

What Are The Best Evergreen Trees For The Pacific Northwest?

Some of the best evergreen trees for the pacific northwest are douglas fir, western red cedar, sitka spruce, and shore pine. These trees can tolerate the region’s moist climate and provide year-round beauty and privacy. Consider factors like size, growth rate, and soil conditions when selecting an evergreen tree.

What Are The Most Colorful Trees For The Pacific Northwest?

The pacific northwest offers a wide range of colorful trees to enhance your landscape. Some vibrant options include the japanese maple, dogwood, flowering cherry, and red-twig dogwood. These trees display brilliant foliage or blossoms, adding beauty and interest to your garden throughout the seasons.

Choose varieties suited to the region’s climate and soil.


Choosing the right trees for the pacific northwest can greatly enhance the aesthetics and ecological balance of your landscape. By selecting native species such as the douglas fir and western red cedar, you can ensure that your trees thrive in the region’s unique climate and provide numerous benefits to the environment.

These include oxygen production, carbon dioxide absorption, and erosion prevention. Additionally, the bigleaf maple and pacific madrone contribute to the region’s biodiversity and attract a wide variety of wildlife. Remember to consider the specific needs of your property, such as soil conditions and available sunlight, when making your tree selection.

By planting the best trees for the pacific northwest, you can create a vibrant and sustainable landscape that will be enjoyed for generations to come. Protection Status