|Article history: |
Accepted: 26.09.2021 Published: 31.10.2021
*Corresponding author: Olayemi Olabode Oluseye E-mail:
email@example.com Phone: +2348054035443
Agriculture enterprise Students
|Agriculture is a known profession in Nigeria and the largest employer of labor in the country, so therefore it’s worthwhile to investigate attitudes to agricultural enterprise among students of tertiary institutions in Ibadan, Oyo State. Multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select 112 respondents for the study. Data was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire from the respondents and descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency tables, and percentages were used to describe data while inferential statistical tools such as PPMC (Pearson Product Moment Correlation) were used to analyze the hypothesis of the study. The result showed that the majority of the respondents were in the age bracket of 21-25 years, also were males and single with the majority of the respondents having low agricultural enterprise preference and also an unfavorable attitude toward agricultural enterprise in the study area. There is a significant relationship between the willingness to an established agricultural enterprise of the respondents and their attitude to agricultural enterprise among respondents in the study area. It is, therefore, recommended that government and non-governmental organizations should render special assistance to students studying agriculture upon their graduation inform of granting loans or scholarships to the students who show a positive attitude towards agriculture and establish an agricultural enterprise.|
The environment is the complex physical factors that make up our surroundings (Britannica, 2002), and in turn, act upon us. The first factor in career choice, environment, may influence the career students to choose. For example, students who have lived on an island may choose a career dealing with the water, or they may choose to leave the island behind, never to have anything to do with water again.
The job market for agriculture has expanded into a wide range of fields. According to Okorie (2001), career opportunities in agriculture include crop production, crop protection, crop processing, animal production, drug production, farm produce distribution, teaching, researching, extension services, soil management and analysis, banking, and finance, input supplying and a lot of jobs available in agro-allied industries.
Some students grow up knowing what they want to do in life. These are the students who will go the extra mile to reach their dream job. However, students often settle on a different path due to many factors they can’t control. Students will research their chosen career path and explore everything about it. The salary and benefits of that job do not play a role in this Decision. In a research study the factor “match with interest” is rated over job characteristics, major attributes, and psychological and social benefits in importance when students choose a major course (Beggs et al., 2008). Students will seek out schools that are well-known for that major or trade. Most students today are more concerned with the amount of money they can earn.
However, there are a few students who pursue their dreams (Mcglynn, 2007). Many students choose their major based on their academic ability (Beggs et al., 2008). However, some students do not have the ability or the work habits to succeed in some majors that may require more study than other fields of study. These students may find a better fit in a less work-intensive major that requires fewer difficult classes and this may affect the career paths of these students.
Despite the fast-growing opportunities in this sector, it is alarming and quite incredible to see many rural youths opting out of farming in search of non-existent white-collar jobs in the cities, leading to an unprecedented level of rural-urban migration. This is obviously a potent threat to the aspiration of the government to achieve food security by 2010. More depressing is the fact that most farmers train their children into becoming doctors, lawyers, etc. as they do not want them to become farmers like them.
It has also become worrisome that children of professional agriculturists, those who teach Agriculture in higher institutions now opted for careers other than agriculture. So, therefore, it is against this background that investigates attitudes to agricultural enterprise among students of tertiary institutions in Ibadan, Oyo State.
The specific objectives include the following: describe the socio-economic characteristics of respondents in the study area, identify preferred agricultural enterprises in the study area, and determine students’ attitude to Agricultural enterprises as a future career in the study area.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was carried out in selected institutions in Ibadan, Oyo State with a latitude of 8’00N and longitude of 4’00E, and a total estimated population of 6,617,720 people. It is bounded in the north by Kwara State, in the east by Osun State, in the south by Ogun State, and in the west partly by Ogun State and partly by the Republic of Benin. It’s also home to Africa’s leading fountain of knowledge, the iconic University of Ibadan, Oyo State College of Education, The Polytechnic, a State-owned University (The Ladoke Akintola University of Technology LAUTECH Ogbomoso), there are also the Federal College of Agriculture Ibadan, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology Ibadan, Federal College of Forestry Ibadan, all in Ibadan.
Sampling procedure and sample size
A multi-stage sampling technique was used for this study. The first stage is a purposive sampling of tertiary institutions offering agriculture and related studies such as the University of Ibadan, Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan, and Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan.
The second stage is the purposive selection of departments with agricultural courses from each tertiary institution offering agriculture and related studies which are the Department of Agricultural Extension and the Rural Sociology University of Ibadan, the Department of Agricultural Extension and Management Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan, and Department of Agricultural Technology Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan.
The third stage is the random selection of 20% agricultural students (respondents) in each selected tertiary institution i.e 20% of 300 from the Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology University of Ibadan, 20% of 60 from the Department of Agricultural Extension, and Management Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan and 20% of 200 from Department of Agricultural Technology Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan to give a total of 112 respondents used as the sample size in the study area.
Method of data collection and data analysis
Data were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected through the use of a structured questionnaire designed carefully to capture the objectives of the study from the respondents. Secondary data was obtained from textbooks, journals, research papers, and other relevant literature to complement the primary data.
Data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics such as (frequency counts, percentages, and mean) using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS Version 20), and inferential statistic such as Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was employed to determine the relationship between willingness to establish an agricultural enterprise and student’s attitude toward agricultural enterprise in the study area.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1. The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents.
|Place of residence from birth|
|Farming experience before getting admitted|
|Present course of study|
|Level of study|
|Name of institution|
Field survey 2020
The result of analysis from Table 1 showed that the majority of the students were in the age bracket of 21-25 years. This is in line with Akinbile (2007) and Adedeji et al., (2013) who reported that respondents with 20-50 years constitute the active workforce of the population. Thus, the respondents could be categorized as adults, at this age, they should have stopped thinking of themselves as children and started thinking more about the future. Also, parents at this age expect mature behavior from their children. Consequently, it was expected that the students to be able to make decisions about potential careers to pursue.
Also shows that more respondents were males (51.8%) and (48.2%) were females. It could be deduced from the result that there are more males studying agriculture than females, with the majority of them being single (96.4%) and 3.4% being married. Results also reveal that the respondents cut across the major ethnic groups within the country. 0.9% Hausa, 34% Igbo, and 66% were Yoruba which constitutes the largest percentage. Other respondents who fall outside these major ethnic groups in Nigeria have 11% percent. Andrew (2016) had earlier established that ethnicity has a role to play in determining the entrepreneurial decision of an individual.
Furthermore, the majority of respondents 81.3% reside in the urban area. This might give the students the privilege of understanding professional careers along with their roles and economic opportunities. Also, the result showed that more than half of the respondents (73%) had NO farming experience before admission.
With these characteristics, it could be said that most respondents were not from farming families and were not expected to develop in agricultural professions. This is in tandem with the findings of Jeffrey, Marcia, and Susan (2004) cited by Ayanda et al. (2012) who noted that parents and guardians play a significant role in the occupational aspirations of their children.
The result revealed that 54% of the respondents are from the Department of Agricultural Extension, 21% of respondents are from the Department of Agronomy, 18% are from the Department of Animal Science, 9% from the department of Agricultural Economics, 8% offer Crop protection and lastly 2% studies Horticulture.
Table 2a. Respondents’ agricultural enterprise preference.
|Agricultural enterprises||Most preferred||Preferred||Not interested|
|fishery and aquaculture production||34 (30.4)||57 (50.9)||21 (18.8)|
|crop production||42(37.5)||51(45.5)||19 (17.0)|
|livestock production||60 (53.6)||41 (36.6)||11 (9.8)|
|plant and animal geneticist||29 (25.9)||71 (63.4)||12 (10.7)|
|soil scientist/pedologist||42 (37.5)||40 (35.7)||30 (26.8)|
|horticulture/olericulture||7 (6.3)||41 (36.6)||64 (57.1)|
|agricultural education (Trainer/Teacher/Lecturer||65 (58.0)||37 (33.0)||10 (8.9)|
|Veterinarian||29 (25.9)||23 (20.5)||60 (53.6)|
|Feed Production, Sales and Management||42 (37.5)||21 (18.8)||49 (43.8)|
|Sales and supply of farm outputs||45 (40.1)||48 (42.9)||19 (17.0)|
|Farm input supply and sales||32 (28.6)||34 (30.4)||46 (41.1)|
|Construction and fabrication of farm machineries and structures||29 (25.9)||22 (19.6)||61 (54.5)|
|Agri-processing||46 (41.1)||43 (38.4)||23 (20.5)|
|Extension agent||30 (26.8)||53 (47.3)||29 (25.9)|
|Other jobs not related to agriculture||26 (23.2)||75 (67.0)||11 (9.8)|
Field survey, 2020
|High (Above mean)||51||45.5||1||24 Low|
Field survey, 2020
The result of analysis in Table 2b revealed that (54.5%) of the respondents had a low preference for agriculture enterprise while (45.5%) had a high preference for agriculture enterprise in the study area. The result of the analysis in Table 2a revealed that the majority of the respondents (53.6%) most preferred livestock production, (58.0%) most preferred agricultural education (Trainer/Teacher/Lecturer), and also the majority of the respondents (50.9%) preferred fishery and aquaculture production, (63.4%) preferred plant and
animal geneticist and (67.0%) preferred other jobs not related to agriculture. While the majority (57.1%) of respondents are not interested in horticulture/olericulture, (53.6%) not interested in veterinarian, and (54.5%) are not interested in the construction and fabrication of farm machinery and structures in the study area.
This finding tally with the report of Mbeine (2012) that marketing-related information and value addition skill is needed by young people involved in agricultural business.
Table 3a. Respondent attitude to establish agricultural enterprises
|Parameters of measurement||SA||A||UD||D||SD|
|Agricultural science is the best course of study||27(24.1%)||58(51.8%)||19(17.0%)||7(6.3%)||1(0.9%)|
|Studying agriculture has a lot of prospect in Nigeria||53(47.3%)||44(39.3%)||10(8.9%)||4(3.6%)||1(0.9%)|
|Agriculture is a lucrative business||25(22.3%)||72(64.3%)||14(12.5%)||1(0.9%)||–|
|Agriculture has a high potential for self-employment||68(60.7%)||38(33.9%)||6(5.4)||–|
|Agriculture is a prestigious field||20(17.9%)||65(58.0%)||17(15.2%)||10(8.9%)||–|
|Agriculture has a high potential for self employment||13(11.6%)||57(50.6)||9(8.0%)||23(20.5%)||10(8.9%)|
|Agriculture is my last opportunity to obtaining a tertiary education and a certificate||4(3.6%)||42(37.5%)||4(3.6%)||21(18.8%)||41(36.6%)|
|Many Nigerians have made a lot of fortunes from agriculture||66(58.9%)||35(31.3%)||6(5.4%)||2(1.8%)||3(2.7%)|
|Agriculture is not so lucrative||3(3.7%)||41(36.6%)||12(10.7%)||13(11.6%)||43(38.4%)|
Field survey, 2020
Table 3b. Categorization of respondents based on their attitude toward agriculture
|Favourable (Above mean)||50||44.6||23||41|
|Unfavourable (Below mean)||62||55.4|
Field survey, 2020
The result of the analysis in Table 3b revealed that (55.4%) of the respondents had an unfavorable attitude toward agriculture while (44.6) had a favorable attitude towards agriculture in the study area.
The result of analysis in Table 3a revealed that the majority of the respondents (60.7%) strongly agree that agriculture has a high potential for self-employment and (58.9%) strongly agree that Many Nigerians have
made a lot of fortunes from agriculture while (51.8%) agree that agricultural science is the best course of study, (64.3%) agree that agriculture is a lucrative business, (58.0%) agree that agriculture is a prestigious field and (50.6%) agree that agriculture is my last opportunity to obtaining tertiary education and certificate as an attitude to establish agricultural enterprises in the study area.
Table 4: PPMC analysis showing the relationship between willingness to establish an agricultural enterprise and student’s attitude toward the agricultural enterprise
Computed analysis, 2020
The PPMC analysis table revealed that there is a significant relationship between willingness to establish an agricultural enterprise and student’s attitudes toward agricultural enterprise in the study area. This implies that the student’s attitude would determine their willingness to establish agricultural enterprise as a future career.
The empirical finding of the study showed that the majority of the students fell between the age bracket of 21-25 years. Thus, could be categorized as adults, with more males, and the majority of them were single. Results also revealed that the respondents cut across the major ethnic groups within the country with Yoruba’s constituting the largest percentage in the study area.
Furthermore, the majority of respondents reside in the urban area which hinders them from farming experience before admission. In addition, the study revealed that the majority of the respondents strongly agree that agriculture has a high potential for self-employment and Many Nigerians have made a lot of fortunes from agriculture while the majority agree that agricultural science is the best course of study, Agriculture is a lucrative business, Agriculture is a prestigious field and agriculture is the last opportunity to obtaining in tertiary education and certificate as an attitude to establish agricultural enterprises in the study area.
Furthermore, results revealed that the majority of the respondents most preferred livestock production, agricultural education (Trainer/Teacher/Lecturer), fishery and aquaculture production, Plant and animal geneticist, and other jobs not related to agriculture in the study area. There is a significant relationship between willingness to establish an agricultural enterprise and student’s attitude toward agricultural enterprise in the study area.
It is, therefore, recommended that special assistance should be given to students studying agriculture upon graduation as the students show a positive attitude towards agriculture and establishing an agricultural enterprise as they think of self-employment and are willing to establish agricultural enterprises on completion of degree and HND programmed. This can be achieved by giving scholarships for further study, granting loans, and providing Agricultural inputs to students.
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